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The 8 Best Flea and Tick Prevention Products for Dogs in 2021

k9 advantix dog price medications online homelabvet shop

Our editors independently research, test, and recommend the best products.

Our Top Picks

“These flea prevention soft chews are delivered through your dog’s bloodstream to kill ticks and fleas before they can lay eggs.”
“Offering up to 12 weeks of protection against fleas and ticks, this chew is available for both large and small breeds, 6 months and older.”
Just one application a month provides protection against fleas and heartworms.

 Flea and Tick Collars

These collars are treated with medication that releases slowly over the course of several months, meaning you only have to replace them a few times a year
Kills fleas, flea larvae, flea eggs, ticks, and mosquitoes on contact.
“Applied every 30 days, this topical kills fleas, flea eggs, flea larvae and ticks including the ones that carry lyme disease.”
“This waterproof topical treatment gives long-lasting protection for a full 30 days, killing fleas and ticks.”
“Working for up to 30 days to kill fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes on contact, this treatment can be used safely on dogs as young as seven weeks.”

Particularly if your pup spends a lot of time outdoors, it’s important to make sure that they’re protected from fleas and ticks (and the various diseases that they carry). But flea and tick prevention products aren’t just important for your dog’s comfort and health—they can also prevent you and your family from getting Lyme disease or another tick-borne illness.

From pills and chews to ointments and shampoos, there are plenty of options to choose from to keep your dog healthy. However, regardless of which tick prevention product you choose, you should still check your dog for ticks after time outdoors.

Read on for the most effective options on the market today.

nexgard chewebles afoxolaner

Your pup will like NexGard as much as you do because each month he’ll get his medicine as a tasty beef-flavored treat. From there, the main ingredient afoxolaner kicks in to kill fleas before they’ve had a chance to lay eggs, and ticks, including the Lone Star, black-legged, American dog, and brown dog varieties. Nexgard is also FDA-approved to help prevent infections that cause Lyme disease. In addition to effectiveness, because the drug is delivered through your pup’s bloodstream, other benefits include that your dog can get wet immediately and it’s safe for other pets and young children in your household.

You can buy it HERE.


An oral chew is a particularly good option for breeds with thick or long coats (including collies and Shih Tzus), where topicals are harder to apply correctly and collars may not be as effective. Each of Bravecto’s prescription-only chews provides up to 12 weeks of protection against fleas and ticks, and starts to kill fleas in just two hours. They control four tick species: black-legged ticks, American dog ticks, brown dog ticks, and Lone Star ticks. If Lone Star ticks are a concern where you live, you may want to give your pet a chew every eight weeks.

The one downside to chews is that they don’t kill parasites on contact, rather your dog must get bitten first. If Lyme disease is prevalent in your area, you should talk to your vet about having your dog vaccinated.

You can buy it HERE.

Americans choice: Revolution (Stronghold) by Zoetis

revolution-plus stronghold

No matter how big or small, our dogs need our help to protect them from parasites. REVOLUTION (selamectin) provides that help. Just one application a month provides protection against fleas and heartworms, treats and controls ear mites and sarcoptic mange, and controls ticks infestations due to American dog ticks. REVOLUTION can treat puppies as young as 6 weeks, and is available in sizes to treat dogs up to 130 lbs with one simple monthly dose.

You can buy it HERE.

Flea and Tick Collars – Seresto/Foresto by Bayer

seresto by bayer

If you’re looking for a way to keep fleas off your dog, flea collars are a popular choice, as they’re extremely convenient to use. These collars are treated with medication that releases slowly over the course of several months, meaning you only have to replace them a few times a year, and they’re also less messy to apply than topical flea and tick treatments.

Most flea collars for dogs contain insecticides, which can pose risks to your family and other pets, so it’s important to carefully research the ingredients of these products before buying.

You can buy it HERE.

 Vet’s Best Flea & Tick Pet & Home Spray 

frontline-spray fipronil

Kills fleas, flea larvae, flea eggs, ticks, and mosquitoes on contact. When spraying your dog, be sure not to miss their armpits and in between their toes, two favorite hiding spots of parasites. It takes some trial and error to figure out how often you should spray your dog—some owners report spraying dogs daily at the start and then paring it back to weekly. You’ll also need to reapply if your dog gets wet.

You can buy it HERE.

Best for Small Dogs: Fipren (Sentry Fiproguard Plus analog)

Sentry Fiproguard Plus analog fipronil

Fipren is a fast-acting, long-lasting squeeze-on formula made to help protect your canine companion against dangerous pests. It’s formulated to kill fleas, flea eggs, flea larvae, ticks and chewing lice for up to 30 days. By killing flea eggs and larvae, this treatment helps break the flea life cycle. It also helps kill ticks that may transmit Lyme disease, providing your pup with even greater protection! This squeeze-on solution is waterproof, long lasting, fast acting and is intended to be used on dogs who are 8 weeks of age and older, weighing 5 to 22 pounds.

You can buy it HERE.

Fypryst FIPRONIL Frontline Plus Drops Treatment for Dogs 88 lbs image

This topical flea and tick treatment contains fipronil, which kills adult fleas and ticks, and (S)-methoprene to flea eggs and larvae. After you snap open the tube and apply the formula to your dog’s shoulder blades and back, it’s stored in the oil glands to give long-lasting protection for a full 30 days. Your dog should stay dry for at least 48 hours, but after that it’s waterproof and safe around young children. Frontline has been around for 20+ years and is recommended by many vets. The large variety is intended for dogs 45 to 88 pounds.

You can buy it HERE.

k9 advantix dog price medications online homelabvet shop

Not all flea and tick treatments are recommended for puppies, so it’s important to check with your vet first before purchasing one. K9 Advantix can be safely used on dogs as young as seven weeks and the small dog variety is made for dogs that weigh between 4 to 10 pounds. The topical works for 30 days and kills on contact, which means fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes don’t have to bite your pup for it to be effective. It starts killing fleas in 12 hours after application.

You can buy it HERE.

Final Verdict

Our best overall pick is the NexGard Soft Chew for Dogs (, which is as tasty as your pup’s favorite treat and works well to kill fleas before they’ve had a chance to spread infection.

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Diagnosing of congestive heart failure (CHF) in dogs

Early detection and treatment are key

Unfortunately, common clinical signs of congestive heart failure (CHF), such as coughing and difficulty breathing, are nonspecific and may mimic respiratory disease, making diagnosis difficult.

Following a series of key steps and using some of the latest diagnostic tools recommended by the Cardiac Education Group (CEG) and other cardiologists can help you identify and treat CHF earlier in canine patients.  The CEG recommends the following diagnostic tools as essential for diagnosing CHF:

Clinical history

Signalment is an important consideration when diagnosing congestive heart failure (CHF) in dogs. In particular, it is important to assess the following factors:

History: To obtain the most complete clinical history about a dog, ask the pet owner specific questions about the following factors:

  • Changes in attitude, behavior, and activity level: Exercise intolerance, depression, and fatigue are all signs associated with CHF.
  • Changes in breathing: Labored breathing or an increased resting respiratory rate can indicate CHF.
  • Changes in appetite and weight: These factors can also signal a heart problem.
  • Coughing: Include evaluation of onset and type of cough. Dogs with pulmonary edema have acute cough. Dogs with chronic heart disease have mild, intermittent cough.
  • Sleeping habits: Restlessness at night is commonly associated with CHF.
  • Previous evidence of heart disease: Heart murmurs or radiographic changes, such as an enlarged heart, can indicate heart disease.
  • Therapy: Consider any preceding treatments, including compliance with heartworm prevention programs.

Physical examination

Performing a thorough annual physical examination on your canine patients provides an excellent opportunity to evaluate dogs for the presence of heart disease. The following factors provide important clues to cardiac status and can help detect congestive heart failure (CHF) in dogs:

  • Weight and body condition: When cardiac disease occurs, cachexia (weight loss) is more likely to indicate CHF.
  • Respiration: Evaluate rate and effort of respiration. Although normal respiratory rates vary depending on breed, temperature, and weight, a presentation at the 2009 ACVIM forum indicated that a resting respiratory rate higher than 35/minute in a dog (at home) is highly suggestive of heart failure. Accuracy can be further improved by determining a baseline respiration rate and watching for subsequent increases in individual dogs. When the resting respiratory rate increases by 25% to 50% or is above 35/minute, a diagnosis of CHF should be considered.
  • Heart rate: CHF causes cardiac output to decrease, which in turn results in an increased heart rate. So, animals with relatively slow or normal heart rates (80 to 120 beats per minute) are less likely to have CHF than those with higher heart rates.
  • Jugular distension: Include examination of the jugular veins. The presence of abnormal jugular pulses (extending more than one-third of the way up the neck) can indicate CHF in dogs.
  • Mucous membranes and skin turgor: Evaluating mucous membranes in a dog provides an indicator of hydration status, peripheral perfusion, and tissue oxygenation.
  • Abdominal distension: Palpate the abdomen to check for abdominal distension, which can be caused by hepatomegaly or ascites.
  • Pulse abnormalities: Identifying arterial pulse abnormalities, such as hypokinetic (small stroke volume), hyperkinetic (large pulse pressure), and pulse deficits (arrhythmias) can help determine if a dog has CHF. Pulse deficits found in the femoral artery while simultaneously auscultating the heartbeat can be indicative of an arrhythmia.

Cardiac and pulmonary auscultation

Auscultation of the heart is used to detect abnormalities such as:

  • Cardiac arrhythmias—irregular heartbeat, tachycardia, or bradycardia
  • Heart murmurs—consider intensity
  • Extra heart sounds—gallops, clicks

Areas of auscultation in the heart should include the mitral, pulmonic, and aortic valves on the left thoracic wall and the tricuspid valves on the right thorax. A heart murmur often is the first detectable sign of heart disease. If a heart murmur is detected, thoracic radiographs (including calculation of a Vertebral Heart Score) should be done to determine if the dog’s heart is enlarged.

Auscultation of the lungs is used to detect the presence of normal bronchovesicular sounds or abnormal lung sounds, such as crackles and wheezes.

Thoracic radiographs

Thoracic radiographs provide information about heart size, status of pulmonary vasculature, and changes in the lungs to help differentiate left-sided congestive heart failure (CHF) from primary pulmonary disease.

Evaluating the size and shape of the heart silhouette on radiographs is a key step in diagnosing and assessing severity of cardiac disease in dogs.  Radiographic results should be used along with clinical signs and physical exam to determine if CHF treatment is indicated.

How to calculate Vertebral Heart Score (VHS)

Calculating a VHS for dogs from radiographic silhouettes can help veterinarians make cardiac assessments.

Additional diagnostic tests

Serologic tests

Serum biochemistries, PCV/TS or complete blood count (CBC) panels, and urinalysis should be completed in all dogs prior to initiating any treatment for congestive heart failure (CHF).

NT-proBNP is a new blood test for cardiac disease in veterinary patients. NT-proBNP is released in proportion to stretch and stress in the heart and is used to assess the severity of heart disease. Patients in heart failure have significant elevations of NT-proBNP, adding useful diagnostic information in the evaluation of patients with compatible clinical signs. Studies have also shown that elevated NT-proBNP levels are seen in patients with impending heart failure and in those with a poorer prognosis.

Echocardiography and electrocardiograms

Echocardiography is useful in determining a definitive diagnosis of the underlying structural disease as it provides a quantitative evaluation of heart chamber size, wall thickness, and the dynamic changes that occur during the cardiac cycle.

In addition, the electrocardiogram (ECG) is the only diagnostic method that provides specific information about the etiology of an arrhythmia. The ECG is a good follow-up test when a cardiac arrhythmia is discovered during a routine physical exam.

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Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in dogs

dcm normal heart

DCM is the second most common cause of canine congestive heart failure (CHF), following atrioventricular valvular insufficiency (AVVI). DCM is a disease of the heart muscle that causes loss of myocardial contractility. The heart becomes weakened and enlarged and cannot pump blood efficiently, resulting in decreased cardiac output and tissue perfusion.

dcm normal heart

DCM can have a quick onset and progresses rapidly in dogs. The preclinical disease phase can vary from months to years, but the disease progresses more quickly than AVVI. Treatment with pharmaceuticals is the most effective intervention and focuses on controlling preload, afterload, and contractility.

NormalHeart DCMheart in dogs

Breeds at risk for DCM

Breeds at risk for DCM

DCM primarily affects middle-aged, and large- or giant-breed dogs. Breeds most susceptible to DCM include Afghan Hound, American Cocker Spaniel, Boxer, Dalmatian, Doberman Pinscher, English Cocker Spaniel, Great Dane, Newfoundland and St. Bernard.

You can buy Vetmedin for heart treatment here:

Vetmedin 10 mg (30 tabs)

Vetmedin 10 mg (50 tabs)

Vetmedin 10 mg (100 tabs)


Vetmedin 5 mg


Vetmedin 1.25 mg (30 tabs)

Vetmedin 1.25 mg (50 tabs)

Vetmedin 1.25 mg (100 tabs)


You can buy another product with the same active ingredient (Pimobendan) – PimoPet

PimoPet 2.5 mg (30 tabs)

PimoPet 2.5 mg (100 tabs)


PimoPet 5 mg (30 tabs)

PimoPet 5 mg (100 tabs)

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Signs of congestive heart failure (CHF) in dogs

Vetmedin pimobendan for dogs

In the early stages, signs of atrioventricular valvular insufficiency (AVVI) or dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are most likely to be subclinical. This preclinical phase can last for months or years. However, as the heart deteriorates and cardiac output decreases over time, AVVI and DCM ultimately lead to congestive heart failure (CHF) in dogs.

Vetmedin pimobendan for dogs

Common clinical signs of CHF that may appear as AVVI or DCM progresses include:

  • Coughing
  • Changes in breathing
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Shortness of breath
    • Increased respiratory rate
  • Changes in behavior
    • Lack of energy
    • Depressed or withdrawn
  • Exercise intolerance
    • Reluctance to go for walks
    • Tires easily
  • Poor appetite and weight loss
  •  and fainting
  • Restlessness, especially at night

As soon as clinical signs of CHF appear, therapeutic intervention is indicated. No cure for CHF exists and surgical intervention is rarely practical in canine patients, so therapeutic goals focus on improving clinical signs and prolonging life.

You can buy Vetmedin here:

Vetmedin 10 mg (30 tabs)

Vetmedin 10 mg (50 tabs)

Vetmedin 10 mg (100 tabs)


Vetmedin 5 mg


Vetmedin 1.25 mg (30 tabs)

Vetmedin 1.25 mg (50 tabs)

Vetmedin 1.25 mg (100 tabs)


You can buy another product with the same active ingredient (Pimobendan) – PimoPet

PimoPet 2.5 mg (30 tabs)

PimoPet 2.5 mg (100 tabs)


PimoPet 5 mg (30 tabs)

PimoPet 5 mg (100 tabs)

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Atrioventricular valvular insufficiency (AVVI) in dogs

avvi normal in dogs


AVVI is a degenerative disease that damages heart valve leaflets as it progresses. This damage prevents heart valves from closing properly, allowing blood to leak backward into the atrium. This leakage eventually results in a heart murmur detectable via auscultation. Valve leakage impairs cardiac function and circulation, ultimately leading to congestive heart failure (CHF).

AVVI in action

Progression of AVVI

AVVI, the most frequent cause of CHF in dogs, is a slowly progressing disease. The prevalence of this disease gradually increases with age. AVVI affects:

  • 10% of dogs 5 to 8 years of age
  • 20% to 25% of dogs 9 to 12 years of age
  • 30% to 35% of dogs over age 13 years

This increase is especially dramatic in small breeds, with up to 85% showing evidence of valvular lesions at necropsy by 13 years of age.

Breeds at risk for AVVI

AVVI occurs most often in small- to medium-sized breeds of dogs. Breeds most susceptible to AVVI include the Boston Terrier, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, Chihuahua, Miniature Pinscher, Miniature and Toy Poodle, Pekingese, and Pomeranian. Ultimately, all small breed dogs are at risk for CHF due to AVVI.

You can buy Vetmedin for heart treatment here:

Vetmedin 10 mg (30 tabs)

Vetmedin 10 mg (50 tabs)

Vetmedin 10 mg (100 tabs)


Vetmedin 5 mg


Vetmedin 1.25 mg (30 tabs)

Vetmedin 1.25 mg (50 tabs)

Vetmedin 1.25 mg (100 tabs)


You can buy another product with the same active ingredient (Pimobendan) – PimoPet

PimoPet 2.5 mg (30 tabs)

PimoPet 2.5 mg (100 tabs)


PimoPet 5 mg (30 tabs)

PimoPet 5 mg (100 tabs)

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Levamisole Hydrochloride. What is Levamisole Hydrochloride?

Nematode In direct Light

What is Levamisole Hydrochloride?

Levamisole Hydrochloride (Levamisole HCL), is an anthelmintic (anti-worm) agent commonly used in large livestock such as cattle, pigs, and sheep. In 1971 it was found to have immunostimulatory properties and investigation into its use in humans began to expand. Currently, Levamisole HCL is used in humans for diseases related to imbalances in the regulation of immune responses or deficiencies of the immune system, including autoimmune diseases, chronic and recurrent diseases, chronic infections, and cancer. It has beneficial effects on host defense mechanisms and restores depressed immune responses in animals and humans.  Another interesting use of levamisole in humans is as a treatment for common warts (verruca Vulgaris).

Levamisole 10%

News of its anthelmintic efficacy and immune system benefits has been known among aquatic hobbyists for years. The problem, however, is that there is not much in the way of definitive information on its use and application in the hobby. Anecdotal accounts of how it has worked for those ‘outside the box’ aquarists who first braved its use with fish, and accounts of personal experience with Levamisole in individual aquariums are helpful, but the ‘your mileage may vary’ factor is immense. A word about its usefulness in treating internal parasites in the ornamental fish trade has spread, but information regarding its use is limited and sometimes conflicting. From the information I have found thus far, Levamisole HCL is safe to use in aquaria and effective against many internal parasites, especially nematodes, when used in appropriate dosages. It does not harm the bio-filter, plants, invertebrates, or uninfected fish. As an added benefit, it boosts the immune competence of fish, humans, large animals, birds, and some reptiles.

This article hopes to pull together what scientific information is available, a bunch of individual accounts, apply some common sense and put together in one place a helpful guide to the use of Levamisole for treating aquarium fish.

Why would anyone use a cattle/pig/sheep de-wormer in a fish tank?

Do you want to know why?

Internal parasites that can be treated effectively by levamisole are endemic. They are everywhere. Fish are also susceptible to these parasites. Since the parasites are what we are attempting to eliminate from our fish, we need a medication that is designed to affect those parasites.

Does the medication need to be labeled for ‘fish only’ use? Not if you know what the medication is composed of, whether it contains any chemicals or additives that would be harmful to fish, if it will work in water, how it works, and what the possible side effects may be. Many medicines that are used in ‘fish only’ preparations are also used in humans and animals.

Medications like:

  • Neomycin
  • Kanamycin
  • Erythromycin
  • Magnesium Sulfate

In fact, manufacturers of fish-specific medications are beginning to package their products in loose powdered or liquid form.

The single most important factor once you’ve decided that a non-fish-specific medication is safe to use in aquaria is determining the correct dosage. We’ll look into that factor later. For now, let’s look at its chemical composition and how it works.

Levamisole Hydrochloride is the LEVO-rotatory form (left-handed) of tetramisole. The DEXTRO isomer (right-handed) contributes to the toxicity, but not the therapeutic effect so it has been removed in marketed preparations.

Levamisole HCL is light-sensitive. Store product in tightly closed light-resistant containers. Leave off tank lights when treating.

There is also a phosphate form of Levamisole.


How does Levamisole HCL work?

How does Levamisole HCL work as an antiparasitic agent?

Levamisole HCL is absorbed through the gut, can also be absorbed through the skin, and is distributed throughout the body. Levamisole affects the neurotransmitters and paralyzes the worm (spastic paralysis). The fish then passes the inactive worms. Good gravel vacuuming is advised after treatment to remove the paralyzed (but still live) worms.  It is not ovicidal, which means it will not affect eggs already present, but it will affect the larval stage of the worm. To ensure complete eradication of the parasite treat again after remaining eggs have hatched.

How does Levamisole HCL work as an immunomodulator?

The mechanism of action for its immunostimulating effects is not well understood. It is believed that it restores cell-mediated immune function in peripheral T-lymphocytes and stimulates phagocytosis by monocytes. The drug appears to restore depressed immune function rather than to stimulate response to above-normal levels. There are multitudes of medical studies being done with its use in humans and animals, the goal being to attain an understanding of its immunomodulating mechanism. The mechanism will be defined, with time. However, at the time of the writing of this article, there is no complete answer to this question. For us, it is enough to know that it does stimulate immune function in fish that are suffering due to parasites or disease.

levamisole injection
Levamisole for injection 8%

What if I overdose my fish?

The LD-50 (the lethal dose of a compound for 50% of animals exposed) of levamisole is 250 mg/l per 24 hours.  This level of dosage is much higher than that which is prescribed for use in a freshwater bath (the method used in our fish tanks). Only extreme overdosing with this medication will result in death to your fish. Few accounts of adverse side effects in aquaria have been noted even with much higher than currently accepted appropriate dosing.

How long will it stay in my fish and how do I get it out of my tank?

Levamisole HCL is rapidly absorbed into the digestive system. Less than 6% of the medication is excreted unchanged in the urine and feces. Half-lives for several species have been recorded:

Cattle: 4 – 6 hours
Swine: 3.5 – 6.8 hours
Dogs:   1.8 – 4 hours
I have not been able to locate any studies that determine the half-life of Levamisole HCL in fish. If you know of any, please post a comment to this article.

Absorption is systemic within 3 – 4 hours. Within three days 70% of the medication will be gone from the fish via its excretory system. The vast majority of the compound will have been metabolized by your fish. The remainder can be removed by water changes and/or adding activated charcoal to your filtration system.

De-bunking a common misunderstanding about Levamisole HCL.

Does Levamisole HCL require a pH of below 7.0 to be effective?

In a word, NO.

This common misconception regarding the uselessness of Levamisole HCL  in higher pH water needed a definitive answer.

Let’s apply some common sense.  When we look around at the other uses of Levamisole HCL we find that one common formulation of Levamisole HCL is administered by adding it to livestock drinking water.  Are all water supplies the same? It seemed unlikely to me that among all the farms using this medication, every water supply would have a pH below 7.0.

After some digging around all over the Internet and phone calls to various Veterinarians and chemical companies, the answer I was given by Dr. Hal Sinclair of IVX Animal Health was both clear and simple. Levamisole base (C11H12N2S) is unstable in water and will degrade rapidly as pH levels increase. Levamisole HCL will not. It’s the addition of the hydrochloride molecule that makes the difference.

Levamisole HCL is stable in water for up to 90 days and will do its job in aquaria with both low and high pH values.

Taking the space to go through all this chemistry may be more than you want to know.  However, chemistry plays a large role in fishkeeping. It helps to be somewhat comfortable with the basics to comprehend the Nitrogen cycle, and to balance the aquatic environments in which our fish live. Planted tank gurus especially, spend time understanding the chemistry of their tanks for both fish and plant benefit.

Chemistry has already helped us to answer the pH question which has been plaguing the community for years. We will need it again in order to determine the effective dosing of Levamisole HCL to cure our fish. Knowing the chemical formula, the molecular weight, and the specific gravity of the molecule will give us the information we need to make some calculations that will help us to do just that.

levamisoleWhich parasites will respond to treatment with Levamisole?

Levamisole has been found highly effective in the treatment of mature and developing immature stages of major stomach and bowel worm species in cattle and sheep including gastrointestinal worms such as Stomach wormsHaemonchus spp; Ostertagia spp; Trichostrongylus spp; Roundworms Nematodirus spp (which include threadworms);  Cooperia spp; Nodular wormsOesophagostomum; Chabertia spp; HookwormsBunostomum spp; Necator spp; and Ancylostoma spp; and Lungworms— Dictyocaulus spp. Nematodes (roundworms) in particular are a common problem. Nematodes such as Capillaria, Eustronggylides, Camallanus, and Contracaecum are common among many fish species. Levamisole is highly effective as a treatment against nematode species.

It is INEFFECTIVE as a treatment for:

  • Cestodes (tapeworms)
    For Cestodes the recommended treatment is Praziquantel.
  • Trematodes (flatworms or flukes)
    For Monogenean Trematodes with a direct life cycle, the suggested treatment is Formalin, administered as a short-term or prolonged bath.
    For  Digenean Trematodes which have a complex life cycle, using differing hosts, the best control is to break the life cycle of the parasite. Elimination of the first intermediate host, the freshwater snail is often recommended.

How can I tell which parasite is affecting my fish?

The best way to determine if your fish is suffering from parasites, and which kind they are is to have the fish examined by a fish health specialist (veterinarian). Accurate diagnosis of an internal parasite infestation in aquatic animals is often outside of the ability of the average hobbyist. Stool samples, slides, microscopes, and sometimes necroscopy, or in the worst-case scenario, autopsy, is the most effective way to determine exactly what parasite is inside your fish. Many of us are just not equipped or knowledgeable enough to perform the necessary diagnostic procedures.  What we can do is observe our fish, become aware of what symptoms may indicate parasitic infection, and learn what methods are best used to treat them.

Levamisole HCL is not a cure-all but it is a good first line of defense against many parasites common to wild-caught fish.

Nematode infections in fish will present with one or more of the following externally observable symptoms:

    1. Hemorrhaging (bloody streaks in fins or body)
    2. White/translucent stringy feces
    3. Inflammation
    4. External lumps or nodules
    5. Necrosis (dead or dying tissue)
    6. Cysts
    7. Granulomas – which are a reaction by immune cells trying to wall off some foreign body (like a worm). They can look like little brown rocks in the shape of the worm but will have a distinct clear edge.
    8. Wasting
    9. Bloated abdomen with fish exhibiting otherwise normal behavior
    10. Worms protruding from the anus (specifically Camallanus)

    A little bit about parasites in general and nematodes in particular.

    Healthy fish can carry a low load of parasites without ever showing outwardly visible signs. Fish that are stressed or sick are immune-compromised and will find it difficult to keep down parasitic infections. Fish carrying a heavy parasite load also become more susceptible to secondary bacterial infections. Because parasites are everywhere, wild-caught fish can be assumed to be harboring parasites whether they appear healthy or not. Quarantine tank treatment with Levamisole HCL prior to placing new wild-caught fish into an established community tank is advised. This will both eliminate parasites (those affected by Levamisole HCL) and boost the immune system of your fish, helping them keep at bay any secondary infections as a result of parasitic damage.

    The severity of damage caused by parasitic infection depends on a number of factors. The number of worms present in the fish, age and species of the fish, and the sites of infection all affect the level of damage caused by the parasite. Most adult nematodes are found in the digestive tract. However, adult and other life stages of worms can be found in muscle tissue, organs, and tissues surrounding the organs. Levamisole HCLworks primarily in the digestive tract so parasites located in organs or tissues may be unaffected by treatment.

    Nematodes have two major categories of life stages, direct and indirect. As indirect hosts, fish can be either the final host, excreting eggs that begin the life cycle all over again or the intermediate host as shown below:

Nematode In direct Light
Indirect Life Cycle with fish as an intermediate host

In this case, the fish is infected with the parasite, then eaten by another fish, bird, or mammal where the parasites will develop into reproductive adults.

Indirect Life Cycle with fish as final host
Indirect Life Cycle with fish as final host

The nematode eggs/larvae enter an intermediate host before being eaten by fish which are the final host. The eggs develop into reproductive adults within the fish. Some intermediate hosts are snails, Tubifex worms, or insect larvae.

Direct Life Cycle
Direct Life Cyclemisole

Nematodes with a direct life cycle do not need an intermediate host. One fish can spread the infection directly to another by eating either eggs or larvae.

Because Levamisole HCL is not harmful to the bio-filter, fish, plants, or invertebrates you can safely treat them within the community tank. In fact, it is best to do so to eliminate possible parasites in any intermediate hosts that may be in the tank. Fish that are suffering from secondary bacterial infections due to parasitic worm damage should be removed from a quarantine tank for appropriate antibiotic treatment.

How do I use Levamisole Hydrochloride?

Some resistance to Levamisole HCL action has been noted in farm animals. Be sure to complete the full course of treatment to avoid the development of resistant strains in fish. Because it is light sensitive, store any unused medication in opaque containers. Remove any carbon used in your filtration as it will absorb the chemical. Turn off UV lighting.

Levamisole HCL is available in several formulations. Below are some manufacturer packaging examples. There are many. You can buy different types of Levamisole HERE and if you are in the EU, so you can buy HERE.

This is the formulation I use in my tanks. I find it easiest to use and most convenient to store in the small dosages needed for aquarium treatments. Divide the powder into the amount you need for treatment. Pack the unused portions in baggies in single or multiple dose sizes within the bottle with the tank size it’s intended to treat noted. Keep at room temperature (with directions for use) until needed. Shelf life for the powder is one or two years, depending on which manufacturer you consult. Store unused liquid solution for up to 90 days in the refrigerator.

Examples of the bolus variety and the injectable are on the right.

The bolus form is messy. It requires crushing the pill, determining the amount of powder needed, dissolving in tank water, filtering through a coffee filter then adding the liquid to the tank.

The only injectable form of levamisole I have been able to locate is the phosphate form. If you locate one, please comment here with the link to the supplier. Store below 70F (21C) and avoid freezing. The label says to use it ‘as soon as possible after the original seal is broken.  This would lead me to believe that the shelf life is not very long.

There are other forms out there, such as Levamisole HCL drench, oral solutions, oral feed mixes, topical solutions, and gel formulas. Check the formulation composition for additional medicines, additives, or agents before using them in your fish tank. Some forms are unsuitable for use with fish due to other ingredients.

I find the powdered soluble formula the most cost-effective and best for storage, dosing, and use.

levamisole powder 8%
levamisole powder 8%

Recommended Dosage

Dr. Roy Yanong, V.M.D. recommends the following for treating fish with internal parasites susceptible to Levamisole HCL:

In answer to your question, the dosage rate for levamisole in a bath is 2 mg/L (2 ppm) for 24 hours (followed by 70-100% water change, and siphon the bottoms of the tanks), with repeat treatments necessary–retreat in 2-3 weeks, and probably one more time after that. This is regardless of size of fish.

The 2 mg/L  dosage rate (of the active ingredient Levamisole) is currently (2007) the level being used by the scientific community. It effectively paralyzes levamisole susceptible parasites at that concentration. Increasing the dosage level does not seem to have any greater effect. Paralysis of the worms takes place when that level of Levamisole HCL is present in the host–your fish. Dr. Yanong recommends that whenever possible, try to diagnose what parasite your fish are harboring prior to treatment. Work with an ‘exotic pet’s veterinarian, or a fish health specialist to ensure you are treating with the right medication.

Dosage Calculation

Some helpful conversions:

For 100% Levamisole Hydrochloride in powder form (Levasole, Soluble Pig wormer)

1 teaspoon = 4 grams
.5 teaspoon = 2 grams
.25 teaspoon = 1 gram
1 US Gallon = 3.78 Liters

Here is where our chemistry comes in.

The molecular formula for Levamisole is         C11H12N2S
The molecular formula for Levamisole HCL is  C11H12N2S•HCl

Because we know the formula we can figure out the Grams/mole off the periodic table which is:

~204.32g/mole (rounded to hundreds) for levamisole
~240.78g/mole for Levamisole HCL because of the HCL (hydrochloride) attachment.

The active anthelmintic ingredient is the Levamisole, not the Hydrochloride, so to attain a 2ppm concentration of Levamisole using Levamisole HCL we will need more Levamisole HCL because of the size (weight) of the molecule. For example, if we know we need 50mg (at 2mg/L this will treat a 25L sized tank or about 6 gallons) of Levamisole but we are using Levamisole HCL, to achieve the same concentration of the Levamisole base we need to do some conversion which works like this:


then divide that by 204.32 (weight in grams of Levamisole)

to get moles which are 2.447.

Then because it’s 1:1 (1-mole levamisole each (basically)) you take

2.447  times 240.78 (so you get the correct weight for added HCL)

and you get .0589g which is ~59mg.

Thus 59 mg of Levamisole HCl is equivalent to 50 mg of levamisole base.



2ppm = 2 mg/L Levamisole base

which converts to:

2.36 mg/L  Levamisole HCL or

~9 mg/Gallon or 90 mg/10 gallons

How do you know how many milligrams of Levamisole you need? More calculating:

We need 2.36 mg/L (or 9 mg/Gallon) of Levamisole HCL to treat our tank at the recommended dosage.

If we measure our tanks in Liters:

2.36 x (the size of your tank in liters) = mg/L of Levamisole HCL to treat your tank.

If we measure our tanks in gallons:

10 gallons = ~38 Liters

For a 10g tank that means:

2.36 x 38 = 89.68 mg or ~90mg of Levamisole HCL will treat 10 gallons with a 2 ppm concentration.

Going by chefkeith’s calculator a very small amount of levamisole powder is needed to treat a 10g tank (.076 grams, or .019 teaspoons). Now I don’t know about you, but I don’t own measuring devices that will enable me to accurately measure that tiny amount. Since overdosing Levamisole HCL (even massively so!) has been common practice for a long time, I generally eyeball my powder measurements into usable sizes.  Since a quarter teaspoon is  about 1 gram, and we need roughly one-tenth of that amount for a 10g tank treatment I do the following:

  • Measure a level 1/4 teaspoon onto a smooth surface.
  • Take a razor blade and divide that quarter teaspoon into 10 relatively even piles. Each tiny pile is one treatment for 10 gallons.
  • Store each tiny pile in tiny plastic baggies (or tin foil) with a ’10g label in an opaque container.

Not very scientific, I know. But it does get me close, and I am confident enough in the safety of the medication that I have no fear for my fish. In fact, prior to this article, I had previously treated fish with Levamisole concentrations as high as 800 mg/10 gallons and saw no negative effects.


Levamisole HCL is a safe and effective anthelmintic for use in aquariums. It does not harm the biofilter, plants, or invertebrates (including shrimp) in your tank and has the added benefit of stimulating the immune system of the tank inhabitants. I highly recommend its inclusion in any fishkeeper’s arsenal of medications. For those of us who purchase wild-caught fish, it is something that should be part of our quarantine tank treatments for newly purchased fish.

Hobbyists have been using it for years now and there are few reports of negative effects on fish. At higher dosages than recommended, there have been some reports of cloudy water at initial treatment, and very few reports of rapid respiration or stress-related behavior in fish. One reported result of treatment stated yellow water, clamped fins, and heavy breathing in cichlids, as well as explosive plant growth. After a couple of days, the negative effects on the cichlids seemed to disappear so he continued the treatment regime.

Dosing levels prior to this information was all over the charts. Without exception, the dosages used were higher. Some were much higher. Recommendations ranged from 1-2 mg/l up to as much as 21 mg/l. Based on the research for this article, it’s my hope that hobbyists will face less confusion regarding the use of Levamisole HCL in aquaria.

Below is the treatment protocol I have used for treating parasites with Levamisole HCL. It is somewhat more intensive than the treatment recommended by Dr. Yanong, but it works for me. Your mileage may vary, but here it is:

  1. Determine the appropriate dosage for your tank.
  2. Treat with the lights off and increased aeration.
  3. Perform a largish water change prior to treatment.
  4. Treat once for 24 hours.
  5. Do a largish water change and vacuum to remove any paralyzed worms in the substrate.
  6. Return tank to normal lighting/feeding/cleaning cycle.
  7. Treat again in 5-7 days after a water change. If you know the parasite you are treating and its life cycle adjust the timing for the second treatment accordingly.
  8. Do another water change with a gravel vacuum.
  9. Return to normal schedule.
  10. Treat a third time after 1 – 2 weeks. (This may be overkill, but due to the lack of negative side effects, and because I have had a previously treated clown loach relapse after over a month, I now do a third treatment.)
  11. Do another good vacuuming with water change and consider your treatment complete.

Usually, I see a marked improvement in vitality and appetite after the first treatment. Don’t let this convince you that the fish is cured! Complete a full course of treatment. In commercial fish enterprises and in livestock there have been reports of various parasites developing resistance to Levamisole treatment.


I’d like to offer my thanks to many on the forums for their input during the search for information on this article.

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Danger of allergy in dogs

allergy in dogs
allergy in dogs

Dogs respond differently to the same stimuli. Someone eats chicken with pleasure, and someone starts itching from it. When this reaction becomes too strong, it is called an Allergy. This is when the dog’s body perceives simple things like pollen as dangerous and harmful. Externally, this can manifest as redness, itching, scabs and rashes on the dog’s skin.

The main types of allergies in dogs:

Food allergy

Allergic to the saliva of fleas

Allergic to substances in the external environment

Now let’s look at how they differ, and what to do if your dog has such an Allergy.

Allergy meds for dogs should only be treated with allergy meds for dogs.

Signs of Allergy in dogs

Symptoms of an Allergy can be the same regardless of its type. These are mainly skin rashes, itching, redness and puffiness. Signs of allergies are most often found in the armpits, on the muzzle and ears, paws and stomach

Allergy is manifested in dogs on the skin, on the ears, on open areas of the skin, on the paws and stomach.

Allergy symptoms in dogs:



Discharge from the ears, eyes, nose

Redness and rashes


An unpleasant odor from the coat and skin

How Allergy manifests itself in dogs is not so important. Externally, all types of allergies may look the same, but the treatment will be different. Therefore, if you have any signs of allergies, you should go to the doctor, and not self-medicate.

You will not be able to determine the cause of the Allergy without a doctor.

We advise you to try dog allergy medicine apoquel.


Food Allergy in dogs

One of the rarest types of allergies. Occurs gradually. Therefore, if the dog has an Allergy at the same time as the new diet, it is most likely not in the food.

It takes time for a food Allergy to manifest itself. Usually, an Allergy occurs to a particular type of protein. Most often on chicken and beef, less often-on Turkey, calf, duck and rabbit. That is why they are often included in hypoallergenic feeds.

Treatment of food allergies in dogs begins with a change in diet. First of all, it is necessary to establish what type of protein the dog is allergic to. Therefore, the previous source of protein is removed from the diet and replaced with a new one. For example, they stopped feeding beef and switched to duck. This applies to both natural food and ready-made feed. In severe cases of food allergies, the dog is completely transferred to hypoallergenic food.


Alex P, chief medical officer of «Petmeds», it is possible to Differentiate the type of Allergy only by excluding the influence of food on its occurrence. Currently, the gold standard for the diagnosis of food allergies is the use of a diagnostic diet with a limited number of components, then a provocative diet, and again a diet with a limited number of components.

For 6-8 weeks (in rare cases up to 10 weeks), the patient should receive only food with a new protein source. If the itch has completely passed during this period, the dog is provocatively fed the same diet (1-2 weeks). The resumption of clinical signs confirms the diagnosis of “food Allergy”. If the intensity of itching has not changed during the diagnostic diet, or if the itching has completely passed, but has not resumed after the provocative diet, you can exclude food as its cause.

In this case, the most likely cause is a non-food Allergy (atopic dermatitis).

If during the period of the diagnostic diet, the itch decreased, but did not completely disappear, and after the provocative diet it increased again, then the patient probably has a non-food Allergy in addition to food allergies.

Flea Allergy in dogs

Flea saliva contains a foreign protein. It is on it that an Allergy occurs, which is often called an Allergy to fleas in dogs. When a flea bites a dog, toxic protein gets into the blood along with saliva. Therefore, the symptoms may persist even after you have removed the fleas from the dog. Flea allergies are more common in summer and autumn. This seasonality is due to the fact that at this time fleas feed more actively before hibernation.

To cure an Allergy to flea saliva, you need to remove the very cause — fleas. Collars and special shampoos are used. The veterinarian may prescribe some medications. The complexity of this Allergy is that you can not find the fleas themselves on the dog. To start an Allergy, just one bite on the street is enough. In addition, all dogs itch differently: someone will comb so that the owner will not stand it, and other dogs will not even notice.

Allergic to substances in the external environment

The reaction to external stimuli-pollen, dust, mold, even grass-is called atopic dermatitis. After flea allergies, this is the most common type. Usually manifests itself at the age of 10 months to three years.

Atopic dermatitis can not be cured, you can only make the dog’s life comfortable enough. Sometimes it helps prophylaxis or transfer. For example, if a dog is allergic to dust, frequent cleaning, replacing carpets with parquet, or moving to the countryside can reduce symptoms.

Unusual types of atopic dermatitis

  • Allergy to the sun. Dogs with such allergies have to walk early in the morning and late in the evening when there is no sunlight.
  • Allergy to the host. The dog reacts to specific substances that are contained in the particles of the skin and hair of the owner.
  • Allergy to perfumes. Especially dangerous if this perfume is used by the owner.

Diagnosis of Allergy in dogs

To detect a dog’s Allergy, there is a large set of methods and studies. You can’t do this in just one way, and you always need a comprehensive study. This is due to the fact that different types of allergies can have the same symptoms. Therefore, the task of the veterinarian is to consistently exclude each of the possible options.

It all starts with the collection of anamnesis. The doctor asks about how the dog is kept, where he lives and sleeps, what kind of vegetation is at home and near the house, what the dog eats every day. You should know the answers to these questions if you are taking someone else’s dog to the doctor. Without answers, the session will be useless.

Many dog ​​skin allergy medication should be applied to the body.

Treatment of allergies in dogs

  1. Not all types of allergies can be cured permanently:
  2. food allergies in dogs. From the diet, you need to exclude the product that you are allergic to.
  3. Allergy to dog food. You need to change the food itself, for example, switch to a different brand. You can keep the same brand of feed, but replace the base. For example, switch from a duck to a rabbit.
  4. Allergy to flea saliva. Regularly use flea medications: collars, shampoos, etc.
  5. Allergy to external stimuli. Avoid contact with items that cause allergies. Remove carpets from the house, put on dog paws shoes to avoid contact with pollen and grass.

What can I give a dog from Allergy

Sometimes you don’t need to give anything. For food allergies, it is enough to exclude a certain type of protein from the diet. For example, go from beef to duck. However, this can only be determined by a doctor.


If a dog has an Allergy, only a veterinarian knows how to treat it.

Only a specialist must necessarily remove the body from the reactive state, since only he can distinguish non-standard reactions from some other infectious and non-infectious diseases that have a similar clinical picture.

Treatment of allergies in dogs is always complex and depends on the type of reaction and its symptomatic manifestations. But

regardless of the nuances of the development of the condition two main points of treatment are present in any case:


Stopping the effects of allergens on the body.

Antihistamine therapy-General and local.


Most webinars prescribe a well-established one

Zoetis (Zoetis) Apoquel for dogs

The innovative formula of the drug with the active substance Oklatsitinib, allows you to eliminate itching in the shortest possible time for dermatitis, allergies. Reduction of itching is observed as early as 4 hours after the first dose of the drug and the antipruritic effect will last at least a day!

Apoquel is a non-hormonal drug, the main active component of which is oclacitinib, which inhibits the function of cytokines that cause itching and inflammation of the skin.

Apoquel eliminates itching caused by dermatitis, allergies to the environment (pollen, dust mites), food allergies (allergies to soy, cereals, dairy products), insect bites (fleas, ear mites or scabies), allergies to chemicals (shampoos, cleaning products, deodorants, artificial floor coverings)

Try the new Zoetis Apoquel!

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The most common infectious diseases of dogs

Viral diseases of dogs

The most common infectious diseases of dogs:

  • carnivore plague
  • Infectious tracheobronchitis (“skin cough complex”)
  • infectious hepatitis in dogs
  • Parvoviral enteritis
  • Rabies
  • Leptospirosis
Viral diseases of dogs

Carnivorous plague (Carre disease)

is an Infectious disease of dogs caused by a virus, characterized by conjunctivitis, diarrhea, nervous phenomena, suppression of the immune system, with a long course.


Infection occurs in several ways: orally (alimentary), aerogenically through the discharge of sick dogs. Sick animals secrete the virus for up to 3 months. Indirect transmission (through clothing, dishes, food) also occurs, but is less significant.

The incubation period is 3-6 days. Possible intrauterine infection, when puppies fall ill after the disappearance of maternal immunity in 4-6 weeks.

Virus isolation:

All secretions of a sick animal are contagious, and can remain so for up to 8 weeks.

Dogs that have been infected with the carnivore plague virus remain immune to it for the rest of their lives.


fever, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, purulent discharge from the eyes and nose, tonsillitis, pharyngitis. Pregnant females have abortions.

In addition to the above there are also specific forms of manifestation of this viral infection:

  • gastrointestinal form-defeat of the gastrointestinal tract
  • respiratory form-bronchopneumonia develops, sometimes with severe shortness of breath and collapse of blood circulation
  • eye changes – photophobia, uveitis, keratitis with ulceration is often observed. In severe cases
  • , skin blindness occurs – the formation of blisters and pustules with severe hyperemia (redness) in the lower abdomen, on the inner side of the thighs and ears. Otitis externa is also possible. Plague can be good for demodectic mange
  • nervous form of plague-occurs after the respiratory form fades, rarely simultaneously; it is manifested by epileptic seizures, convulsive contractions of the chewing muscles, mental disorders, Manege movement, TIC, ataxia, paresis, paralysis
  • hyperkeratosis of the finger crumb-a rare form of carnivorous plague that occurs during the 2nd week of the disease or after it.


Cautious in respiratory and intestinal forms, uncertain in the nervous form without temperature, unfavorable in severe pneumonic and febrile, nervous forms.


With the help of consistent vaccination prevention, the incidence of plague can be kept under control. Puppies are usually vaccinated at the age of 8 weeks and after 3-4 weeks with a combined vaccine.

Infectious tracheobronchitis (“captive children”, “kennel cough”).

Heterogeneous complex of primary viral and secondary bacterial infections of the upper respiratory tract. Since these diseases are not limited to nurseries, it is more correct to talk about infectious lariongotracheobronchitis.

The types of viruses vary from country to country, with each outbreak, and are related to the type of dog keeping (isolated or group). Quite often, this disease can be complicated by secondary infections (pathogens of which can be Bordetella, streptococci, staphylococci, pasteurels, klebsiels, mycoplasmas, etc.).


occurs by airborne droplets and rapidly covers the entire dog population.

The incubation period can last from 2 to 30 days .

Symptoms and course of the disease:

Hidden infections. With clinically manifested uncomplicated infections, a convulsive dry cough with or without disorders of the General condition, serous nasal discharge and tonsillitis come to the fore.

In most cases, the participation of dogs in an exhibition or competition, staying in an overexposure point, or an individual stressful situation (change of owner, transportation)

Complicated infection:

Additionally, fever, General disorders, and signs of pneumonia are detected.

Factors predisposing to a severe course of the disease are:

  • admission from the kennel, with a constantly changing composition of animals
  • multiple infections (suppression of the animal’s immunity)
  • lack of vaccination, incorrect vaccination
  • mass worm infestation and stress in young dogs
  • crowded content


Is favorable, as in 7-14 days spontaneous recovery occurs, with the exception of weakened young dogs


Timely vaccination with a complex vaccine (which is based on the spectrum of pathogens in the affected areas).

Infectious hepatitis in dogs

Canine adenovirus 1 causes liver inflammation. It is related to adenovirus 2 (causes laryngotracheitis), so this disease has respiratory symptoms.

Isolation of the virus:

Begins from the 5th day through saliva, urine, feces, and with urine up to 6 months. In a low-temperature environment, the virus persists for up to 9 months. At room temperature for 3-11 days. For disinfection, 5% calcium chloride, sodium hydroxide, and iodine preparations are used.


in most dogs, this disease is hidden.

Clinically, the disease manifests itself quite rarely and usually simultaneously with the plague of dogs (in young dogs).

Subacute or chronic course is characterized by subclinical and non-specific disorders.


In acute cases, the mortality rate in puppies is almost 100%. In adult dogs, it falls by 10-50%


vaccination of dogs.

Parvovirus enteritis, parvovirosis.

Infection occurs through food contaminated with feces, a virus found on the fur of recovering animals, on clothing and care items.

The incubation period is 4-7 days before the onset of clinical symptoms. Isolation of the virus begins in 3-5 days (with feces) and sometimes lasts up to 25 days.

The virus persists in the environment for up to 6 months ( in feces). Isolation of the virus by dogs with a subclinical course is of particular importance for the spread of the disease.


The main symptoms: 

  • diarrhea
  • vomiting (persistent vomiting is characteristic even in recovering animals)
  • a decrease in temperature or Vice versa fever.
  • anorexia
  • weakness
  • severe dehydration
  • pain in the abdominal cavity.

Most animals die in the first 4 days of illness. After that, the chance of recovery increases. The duration of the disease is 1-2 weeks (on average). This disease can cause heart complications (myocarditis). Puppies with myocardial complications die from non-purulent myocardial necrosis, pulmonary edema, pleural effusion or ascites after shortness of breath, cyanosis, noisy breathing, suffocation, fever.


Timely vaccination at 12-14 weeks of life with revaccination at 16-18 weeks.

Then the annual vaccination.



A dangerous disease that is zooanthroponosis (transmitted to humans).

It is always fatal, and is transmitted by biting or blinding damaged skin to sick animals.

At the moment (after the introduction of the anti-rabies vaccine), the main source of infection is wild animals.


Occurs directly through the saliva of sick animals containing the virus, which through a bitten wound or abrasions on the skin gets into the muscle and then into the nerve tissue.

Not every bite leads to infection.

The incubation period is 14-60 days, in some cases it can be 6-12 months (according to some sources, up to 6 years).


Paralysis, impaired coordination of movements. Atypical forms of flow have also become quite common (see below).

classic treatment in three stages

  • Prodromal stage. Behavior change (lasts from a few hours to 4 days): dogs are capricious, very friendly or Vice versa, avoid people, are timid, restless, try to hide, bark or bite unmotivated, itching may occur at the site of the bite and “catching flies”.
  • In the initiation phase. It is characterized by aggressiveness and wandering movements (violent form of rabies, lasts 1-4 days). Increased anxiety, mood swings, anorexia, gnawing of foreign objects, drooling, hoarse barking, increased aggressiveness and desire to run away, attacks on other dogs, possible violation of coordination of movement and epileptic seizures.
  • Paralytic or depressive form. 3-4 days before death, characterized by progressive paralysis.

“Silent rabies”

without the previous stage of arousal, paralysis develops. This form has become more common.

Symptoms: expressionless, dull look, the dog listlessly sits down anywhere; drooling, drooping lower jaw, hoarse voice, inability to eat; pupils of different shapes, there is a loss of the 3rd century, strabismus; in the end, paralysis of the trunk and death.

“Atypical rabies»

Chronic, lasting up to 3 months or more, subclinical course. Symptoms: diarrhea or possibly intestinal paralysis at the beginning, then paresis, motor disorders, depression, followed by temporary improvement. The diagnosis is made at the autopsy of the animal.

Prevention consists of annual vaccination of dogs. There are also vaccines for wild animals that have successfully proven themselves and led to the extinction of rabies among dogs in disadvantaged areas.


Leptospirosis is a common worldwide disease that is also dangerous for humans.

A person is not a distributor of leptospirosis, but can be infected with it through urine or blood. Infection occurs through direct contact with the urine of sick dogs or leptospiron carriers (the virus is isolated up to 4 years.) Without causing a local reaction, Leptospira penetrates the mucous membranes of the digestive or sexual apparatus, conjunctiva or skin damage, multiplies on the spot and enters the blood. The incubation period is 4-12 days. The isolation of Leptospira presumably begins on the 7th day.

Forms of course and symptoms:

Mild, atypical forms occur with fever, General disorders and weakness, but without organic manifestations or jaundice.

Acute, severe course can lead to death in 48-72 hours.

The liver and kidneys are affected (depending on the pathogen), kidney failure and gastrointestinal disorders develop. Some dogs recover, others develop a chronic form.

The chronic form of the course develops from acute forms as a result of irreversible disorders or occur due to the preservation of leptospir in the renal tubules or liver.

  • Symptoms:
    persistent vomiting
  • acute renal failure
  • diarrhea
  • gastroenteritis
  • tonsillitis
  • stomatitis
  • dehydration
  • hemolysis
  • jaundice
  • Central nervous
  • system disorders circulatory
  • disorders shortness
  • of breath visual impairment
  • photophobia


Depends mainly on the severity and course of kidney and liver damage.

Mortality in severe cases is about 30%.


Regular vaccination, preventing the dog from drinking from puddles and stagnant reservoirs.

Control of rodents that carry leptospirosis

Antibiotics for dogs are very effective vaccines for different types of parasites, some of them: Oxytetracycline, Tylosin, Doxycycline

If You want quality medicines, visit our online vet pharmacy. We have the best Veterinarian Supply Store !!!

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Vaccination of dogs: why and when to do it?

puppy vaccinations at home

puppy vaccinations at home

Vaccination of dogs: why and when to do it?

If you have decided to get a dog or you have already got this happiness in your home, then you are probably already looking for information about dog vaccinations. This is a very important procedure that will help prevent dangerous diseases. After all, you can pick them up on any walk. Moreover, the owner can bring “infection” on his shoes.

What diseases does the vaccine help with?

Mandatory vaccination is carried out against such dangerous diseases:

  • plague;
  • parainfluenza;
  • leptospirosis;
  • enteritises;
  • infectious hepatitis;
  • rabies;
  • parvovirus

There are also vaccines for microsporia, lichen, and trichophytosis.

Vaccination of puppies

You can vaccinate the tail from 6-7 weeks. However, often the procedures begin when the tail is 2-2. 5 months old.

The procedure for vaccination in General terms is as follows:

  • complex vaccine against leptospirosis, enteritis, parainfluenza, hepatitis, distemper;
  • after approximately 21-28 days, a revaccination is performed for the above infectious diseases, and a rabies vaccine is also administered;
  • after another 3-4 months, you need to be re-vaccinated against infectious diseases and revaccinated against rabies.

Further, vaccinations are performed once every 12 months. A veterinarian is responsible for selecting medications and preparing the vaccination calendar.

Vaccination of dogs older than 1 year

Pets older than 1 year are vaccinated every year, but only once. From infectious diseases, the pet can be vaccinated once every 2 years, but the rabies shot is given strictly every 12 months in the same period.

As for older dogs, the decision on vaccination should be made taking into account the health status of the four-legged dog. Otherwise, vaccination can become a trigger for exacerbation of chronic diseases, which will weaken the immune system.

in our store you can buying dog vaccinations and buy puppy vaccines online

Contraindications for vaccination of dogs

Do not vaccinate your pet in the following cases:

  • pregnancy;
  • fever;
  • two weeks before and after cupping the tail, ears;
  • diseases in the acute stage;
  • exhaustion of the body (after illness, surgery);
  • in the near future, there is a binding (after vaccination, it should take at least 3 months before binding).

Some of the rules of vaccination

Before the procedure, you should consider several rules:

14 days before vaccination, the dog should be deworming, as well as treated from external insects.

The pet must be completely healthy. Monitor the condition of the four-legged animal — whether the animal is in a good mood, whether there is an appetite. If you find apathy, fatigue, or any other ailment, the procedure should be postponed.

If the animal has a tendency to allergies, then an antihistamine should be given before vaccination. It is very important to consult a veterinarian about this.

It is not recommended to get vaccinated when changing teeth. Some medications may have an effect on enamel discoloration.

A dog is a big responsibility. Your love, care, and proper care will give you many happy years together!

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Arthritis in dogs. Signs, diagnosing, and treatment

arthritis dog

Arthritis in dogs

The first thing to think about if a dog limps on its front paw is an injury or joint disease. Indeed, these are the most common causes, but partial lameness can also be a symptom of certain diseases. And it happens that a pursed front paw is not a sign of health problems at all. The dog may try to attract attention and get a pet or treat in this way.

How to determine a limb injury?

Often dogs get injured on a walk, cutting themselves on the glass. So suffer mostly their front paws, the first to touch the subject. They also take the main load during landing from jumps, so bone or joint damage is often received. Determine that the dog limps on the front paw due to injury, you can through a careful inspection. Burns and wounds always leave traces, you can find a red burned area or a place of bleeding. You also need to examine the pads of the paws for bruising or broken at the root of the claw Dog Arthritis Medications

The examination should be carried out very carefully, since any contact with a fracture can cause the dog severe pain. You do not need to try to force the joint to “help” the animal. The pain threshold in dogs is very high and if it does not want to be touched in any place, it means that the unpleasant sensations are very strong. With a fracture, it is not necessary that the injury is received in the lower part of the paw. It can be much higher. An accurate diagnosis can be made by a veterinarian after an x-ray and examination.

arthritis in dogs

Can the problem be related to the disease?

When a dog limps on its front legs in severe pain, it moves in a special way: bending down and throwing its head up, as if diving. This suggests that it is difficult for her to move in General. She begins to sit differently, hardly gets up from the lying position (especially problems with movements after sleep are characteristic of arthrosis). At the same time, no external damage is detected. What could it be arthritis medicine for dogs. One of the following ailments:

  • Intermittent lameness;
  • Tear of a muscle or ligament;
  • Osteosarcoma;
  • Diseases of the spine;
  • Arthritis

With intermittent lameness, the dog falls on one or the other paw. In this case, the animal does not respond to manual examination, as it does not experience pain. With other diagnoses, the dog may feel unpleasant or painful during palpation and procedures.

If not an adult dog, but a puppy limps on its front paw, then we can also assume the probability of any hereditary diagnosis:

  • Patellau Disease.
  • Perthes Disease.

Is self-diagnosis possible? In most cases, it does not give results. If there is a noticeable swelling or growths, you will still have to contact a veterinarian. The same as if there is no pain, but the dog still limps on its front legs

dog arthritis treatment

Signs of arthritis in dogs

  • Hesitates before going up or down the stairs.
  • Lags behind or gets tired easily while walking.
  • Prefers to lie down rather than sit or stand.
  • Stiffness, especially after a rest.
  • Whines, growls, or bites when touching a sore spot.

What to do if your dog has arthritis: improve mobility and joint health

  • Contact your veterinarian to select the correct treatment. Act now to keep your dog’s joints healthy.
  • If she has arthritis, the cartilage in her joints is erased, causing severe pain.
  • If you address the problem now, your dog may not need more aggressive treatment methods, such as surgery, in the future.

Treatment: the importance of nutrition

The health of the dog and its condition in General largely depend on nutrition. A balanced diet is an essential part of your pet’s active, healthy lifestyle. To find out the exact diagnosis and treatment options, always consult your veterinarian and ask them to recommend the best food to treat arthritis and maintain the health and mobility of your dog’s joints. Some medications can make your pet’s life easier, such as Rimadyl P Zoetis. It is prescribed for dogs to relieve inflammation and pain in acute and chronic diseases of the musculoskeletal system (osteoarthritis), for analgesia, and as an anti-inflammatory agent to reduce postoperative pain and swelling, and many dog breeders use CIMALGEX or PREVICOX in their practice, these drugs lead to an improvement that is noticeable for dog owners.


Depending on the disease and the General condition of the animal, the veterinarian prescribes various medications and physical therapy. Folk remedies, unfortunately, are not very effective for injuries and pathologies. It should be noted that the same fracture of the front paw can heal in a dog itself, but it is not a fact that this will happen correctly. The animal will experience a lifetime of discomfort due to long-standing injuries.

It is interesting to know! After realizing that they are being taken care of during their illness, dogs can later fake a limp on their foreleg to get more care and attention.

In certain cases, it is impossible to fully recover. This applies, for example, to arthrosis. Maintenance therapy is used to ensure that the pet’s standard of living is at the proper level and there is no severe pain. Injections of an analgesic and anti-inflammatory medication may be prescribed Dog Arthritis Medications.

There are also recommendations that are given for almost any reason for lameness on the front paws in dogs:

more rest;

a place to sleep that you don’t need to jump on;

food additive;

special diet.

You can’t decide on your own whether to do massages or develop joints. Excessive loads can cause the dog’s condition to deteriorate.


  • During the walk, you need to make sure that the dog does not run into places where glass, brick fragments, sharp metal objects may be scattered.
  • If several animals play together, it is better to make sure that the larger ones do not” chase ” the smaller ones – at such moments, Pets often get dislocated and bruised.
  • Adhere to a full and competent diet with the addition of vitamin complexes for the healthy development of bones, muscles and joints.
  • When receiving a puppy, you should ask about the health of your parents. Some inherited diseases may never show up with proper care.
  • To maintain an adequate age, condition and breed of physical activity. So, dogs of small breeds should not jump down from too high a height-landing on their front paws, they can damage them. A number of large breeds and older animals have difficulties using stairs, you need to spare your pet.

Lameness of the front paws in dogs

Lameness of the front paws in dogs can indicate not only a banal injury, but also certain diseases. The animal’s health can be improved with the help of veterinarians, but with a number of diagnoses, full recovery is unfortunately impossible.

In any case, the owner of his dog can always help improve health with vitamin supplements, Canina Petvital Canhydrox GAG a drug that stimulates the growth and formation of bones, joints or a time-tested vitamin Supplement Calcium supplement 8 IN1 Excel.