Posted on

The following symptoms require immediate veterinary attention:

Posted on Leave a comment

The 8 Best Flea and Tick Prevention Products for Dogs in 2021

k9 advantix dog price medications online homelabvet shop

Our editors independently research, test, and recommend the best products.

Our Top Picks

“These flea prevention soft chews are delivered through your dog’s bloodstream to kill ticks and fleas before they can lay eggs.”
“Offering up to 12 weeks of protection against fleas and ticks, this chew is available for both large and small breeds, 6 months and older.”
Just one application a month provides protection against fleas and heartworms.

 Flea and Tick Collars

These collars are treated with medication that releases slowly over the course of several months, meaning you only have to replace them a few times a year
Kills fleas, flea larvae, flea eggs, ticks, and mosquitoes on contact.
“Applied every 30 days, this topical kills fleas, flea eggs, flea larvae and ticks including the ones that carry lyme disease.”
“This waterproof topical treatment gives long-lasting protection for a full 30 days, killing fleas and ticks.”
“Working for up to 30 days to kill fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes on contact, this treatment can be used safely on dogs as young as seven weeks.”

Particularly if your pup spends a lot of time outdoors, it’s important to make sure that they’re protected from fleas and ticks (and the various diseases that they carry). But flea and tick prevention products aren’t just important for your dog’s comfort and health—they can also prevent you and your family from getting Lyme disease or another tick-borne illness.

From pills and chews to ointments and shampoos, there are plenty of options to choose from to keep your dog healthy. However, regardless of which tick prevention product you choose, you should still check your dog for ticks after time outdoors.

Read on for the most effective options on the market today.

nexgard chewebles afoxolaner

Your pup will like NexGard as much as you do because each month he’ll get his medicine as a tasty beef-flavored treat. From there, the main ingredient afoxolaner kicks in to kill fleas before they’ve had a chance to lay eggs, and ticks, including the Lone Star, black-legged, American dog, and brown dog varieties. Nexgard is also FDA-approved to help prevent infections that cause Lyme disease. In addition to effectiveness, because the drug is delivered through your pup’s bloodstream, other benefits include that your dog can get wet immediately and it’s safe for other pets and young children in your household.

You can buy it HERE.

bravecto

An oral chew is a particularly good option for breeds with thick or long coats (including collies and Shih Tzus), where topicals are harder to apply correctly and collars may not be as effective. Each of Bravecto’s prescription-only chews provides up to 12 weeks of protection against fleas and ticks, and starts to kill fleas in just two hours. They control four tick species: black-legged ticks, American dog ticks, brown dog ticks, and Lone Star ticks. If Lone Star ticks are a concern where you live, you may want to give your pet a chew every eight weeks.

The one downside to chews is that they don’t kill parasites on contact, rather your dog must get bitten first. If Lyme disease is prevalent in your area, you should talk to your vet about having your dog vaccinated.

You can buy it HERE.

Americans choice: Revolution (Stronghold) by Zoetis

revolution-plus stronghold

No matter how big or small, our dogs need our help to protect them from parasites. REVOLUTION (selamectin) provides that help. Just one application a month provides protection against fleas and heartworms, treats and controls ear mites and sarcoptic mange, and controls ticks infestations due to American dog ticks. REVOLUTION can treat puppies as young as 6 weeks, and is available in sizes to treat dogs up to 130 lbs with one simple monthly dose.

You can buy it HERE.

Flea and Tick Collars – Seresto/Foresto by Bayer

seresto by bayer

If you’re looking for a way to keep fleas off your dog, flea collars are a popular choice, as they’re extremely convenient to use. These collars are treated with medication that releases slowly over the course of several months, meaning you only have to replace them a few times a year, and they’re also less messy to apply than topical flea and tick treatments.

Most flea collars for dogs contain insecticides, which can pose risks to your family and other pets, so it’s important to carefully research the ingredients of these products before buying.

You can buy it HERE.

 Vet’s Best Flea & Tick Pet & Home Spray 

frontline-spray fipronil

Kills fleas, flea larvae, flea eggs, ticks, and mosquitoes on contact. When spraying your dog, be sure not to miss their armpits and in between their toes, two favorite hiding spots of parasites. It takes some trial and error to figure out how often you should spray your dog—some owners report spraying dogs daily at the start and then paring it back to weekly. You’ll also need to reapply if your dog gets wet.

You can buy it HERE.

Best for Small Dogs: Fipren (Sentry Fiproguard Plus analog)

Sentry Fiproguard Plus analog fipronil

Fipren is a fast-acting, long-lasting squeeze-on formula made to help protect your canine companion against dangerous pests. It’s formulated to kill fleas, flea eggs, flea larvae, ticks and chewing lice for up to 30 days. By killing flea eggs and larvae, this treatment helps break the flea life cycle. It also helps kill ticks that may transmit Lyme disease, providing your pup with even greater protection! This squeeze-on solution is waterproof, long lasting, fast acting and is intended to be used on dogs who are 8 weeks of age and older, weighing 5 to 22 pounds.

You can buy it HERE.

Fypryst FIPRONIL Frontline Plus Drops Treatment for Dogs 88 lbs image

This topical flea and tick treatment contains fipronil, which kills adult fleas and ticks, and (S)-methoprene to flea eggs and larvae. After you snap open the tube and apply the formula to your dog’s shoulder blades and back, it’s stored in the oil glands to give long-lasting protection for a full 30 days. Your dog should stay dry for at least 48 hours, but after that it’s waterproof and safe around young children. Frontline has been around for 20+ years and is recommended by many vets. The large variety is intended for dogs 45 to 88 pounds.

You can buy it HERE.

k9 advantix dog price medications online homelabvet shop

Not all flea and tick treatments are recommended for puppies, so it’s important to check with your vet first before purchasing one. K9 Advantix can be safely used on dogs as young as seven weeks and the small dog variety is made for dogs that weigh between 4 to 10 pounds. The topical works for 30 days and kills on contact, which means fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes don’t have to bite your pup for it to be effective. It starts killing fleas in 12 hours after application.

You can buy it HERE.

Final Verdict

Our best overall pick is the NexGard Soft Chew for Dogs (Homelabvet.com), which is as tasty as your pup’s favorite treat and works well to kill fleas before they’ve had a chance to spread infection.

Posted on Leave a comment

Tick Removal and Prevention for Dogs

tick in dog

How to Remove Ticks from Dogs and Keep Them From Coming Back

What should you do if you find a tick on your dog? Ticks are not just disgusting; they pose a health risk to your dog. It’s important to remove ticks and prevent more from affecting your dog.

tick in dog

Ticks are parasitic arthropods that feed on the blood of their hosts. They can carry a variety of diseases that can affect dogs as well as humans. The best way to keep yourself and your dog safe is to prevent ticks from attaching to your dog in the first place. It is also important to look for ticks on your dog and safely remove them. This is essential if you live in a region known for ticks. Wooded areas are favorite spots for ticks, but they can live anywhere.

ticks

Finding and Removing Ticks from Your Dog

To search for ticks on your dog, run your hands all over the body, paying close attention to the ears neck, skin folds, and other crevices. Closely examine any raised areas closely by parting the hair, making sure you are in a very well-lit area (you can even use a flashlight). You may prefer to wear gloves for your own safety.

Depending on the species and life stage, a tick may be as small as a pencil point or as large as a lima bean (when engorged). If you live in an area where ticks are prevalent, or your dog spends a lot of time in high grasses or wooded areas, you should check for ticks daily. If you find an embedded tick, be sure to remove it promptly.

tick in dog

How to Remove a Tick From Your Dog

    1. Wear latex or nitrile gloves to protect yourself. Use a pair of tweezers or a specially-designed tick removal tool to grasp the tick at the point where its mouth attaches to the skin. This should be done as close to the skin as possible. You may wish to use a tick removal product like the Tick Twister.
    2. Be very careful NOT to squeeze the body of the tick, as this may cause pathogens to be injected into the site.
    3. Pull the tick straight out from the skin slowly and steadily (without twisting or turning). Some top layers of your dog’s skin may come off with the tick, but this is normal. If bleeding occurs, apply light pressure to the area.
    4. Once removed, the tick should be handled carefully. While some people prefer to flush ticks down the toilet, saving the tick for further identification is a good idea. Place the tick in a small airtight container (like a pill vial or jar). You may wish to add some rubbing alcohol to the container. Label the container with the date and store in case future illness occurs, as identification may become necessary.
  1. If part of the tick’s head still appears to be embedded, use the tweezers to gently pull it out. If some of the head cannot be removed, do not become alarmed. This should fall off eventually and rarely causes complications.
  2. After tick removal, gently clean your dog’s skin at the bite area with mild soap and water or a solution of iodine and water (dilute the iodine to the color of weak tea). Watch this spot for several days in case of further irritation or infection. If the area does not clear up in a few days, contact your veterinarian.

It’s important to understand that there are really no shortcuts that can make a tick release itself from its host. A tick will not voluntarily detach until its meal is complete. DO NOT apply hot matches, nail polish, petroleum jelly, alcohol, or other chemicals to the site. These methods are not effective and can actually cause harm to your dog. Doing something that agitates the tick might make it harder to remove.

The symptoms of tick-borne diseases may take weeks to months to appear. Be sure to contact your vet if you notice any signs of illness in your dog.

Tick Prevention for Dogs

The best way to protect your dog from the hazards of ticks is to keep them from attaching in the first place. Routine checks should be done to search for ticks on your dog. Finding them before they attach is helpful, but this is not the most accurate method of prevention.

One of the most effective ways to keep ticks off your dog is to directly apply a tick prevention product specifically designed for dogs. Tick prevention may be oral or topical. Oral treatments may be given every one to three months depending on the drug. Topical products are typically designed to be applied monthly to prevent ticks. Another topical option is a tick collar. Some products are available over-the-counter while others require a prescription. Be aware that not all products are created equally. Ask your vet for recommendations so you can choose the most effective method for your pet.

Though approved for use on dogs, be aware that some tick preventive products contain toxins and should ALWAYS be used according to the directions. Do not use extra amounts of a product or apply more than one at the same time. In addition, many topical products are highly toxic to cats.

To reduce the number of ticks hiding out in your yard, keep your grass mowed and plants neatly trimmed. You may also choose to treat outdoor areas with pesticides, but be sure to use a substance that is safe for dogs and preferably environmentally friendly.

With the proper knowledge, you can help defeat the dreaded tick and protect your dog, your family, and yourself from the dangers of tick-borne diseases.

flea and tick

Tick Prevention for Dogs

The best way to protect your dog from the hazards of ticks is to keep them from attaching in the first place. Routine checks should be done to search for ticks on your dog. Finding them before they attach is helpful, but this is not the most accurate method of prevention.

One of the most effective ways to keep ticks off your dog is to directly apply a tick prevention product specifically designed for dogs. Tick prevention may be oral or topical. Oral treatments may be given every one to three months depending on the drug. Topical products are typically designed to be applied monthly to prevent ticks. Another topical option is a tick collar. Some products are available over-the-counter while others require a prescription. Be aware that not all products are created equally. Ask your vet for recommendations so you can choose the most effective method for your pet.

Though approved for use on dogs, be aware that some tick preventive products contain toxins and should ALWAYS be used according to the directions. Do not use extra amounts of a product or apply more than one at the same time. In addition, many topical products are highly toxic to cats.

To reduce the number of ticks hiding out in your yard, keep your grass mowed and plants neatly trimmed. You may also choose to treat outdoor areas with pesticides, but be sure to use a substance that is safe for dogs and preferably environmentally friendly.

With the proper knowledge, you can help defeat the dreaded tick and protect your dog, your family, and yourself from the dangers of tick-borne diseases.

Posted on Leave a comment

Hookworms. What’s to know about hookworm infection?

hookworm lifecycle dog

Hookworm is a parasite that causes infection in people of all ages. It enters the body through the skin and can lead to a number of complications.

Hookworm is most likely to occur in a moist, hot climate. However, they occur in many locations around the world, including the United States.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Trusted Source, between 576 and 740 million people worldwide have hookworm infections. It was once common in the southeastern parts of the U.S., but improvements in living conditions have reduced its occurrence.

However, wherever humans and animals live together, including pets, infection is possible.

There are different species of hookworm. The ones that infect humans include the Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus.

Transmission

Hookworm can spread when a person who has the infection defecates in the soil or when people use human feces on soil as a fertilizer.

hookworm lifecycle dog
Hookworms can enter the skin when a person comes into contact with contaminated soil.

If eggs are present in the feces, they can hatch after 1 to 2 days under the right conditions.

After hatching, the larvae can survive for 3 to 4 weeks in the soil, according to the Merck Manuals. They take 5 to 10 days to mature in the soil.

When a person comes into contact with this soil, hookworm larvae can pass through their skin.

This can happen if the person:

  • walks barefoot on soil that contains the larvae
  • swallows soil particles, for example on unwashed salad leaves

After entering the body, the hookworm larvae make their way into the body’s bloodstream and lymphatic vessels. These systems carry the larvae to the lungs. From there, the person can cough them up and swallow them.

If a person digests mature hookworms, the worms attach to the small intestine and gain nutrients through human blood. In some cases, the person may develop anemia as they lose blood to the hookworms. Worms may live for over 2 years.

Mating also occurs in the small intestine. From here, thousands of eggs can enter the human feces.

Hookworms cannot pass to another individual through personal contact. Infection can only happen when the eggs mature into larvae in soil.

Risk factors

Certain groups of people have a higher risk of contracting the parasite.

These include:

  • those who live in warm, tropical, or subtropical areas
  • people who spend time in areas where there is poor sanitation management and hygiene, especially if walking barefoot or with skin-to-soil contact
  • those who are pregnant or of childbearing age
  • young children who have contact with contaminated soil or sandboxes
  • workers who have contact with contaminated soil, especially farmers, plumbers, electricians, and exterminators
  • people who sunbathe on contaminated sand

The risk increases in areas where people use “night soil” or fertilizer made from human feces.

Symptoms

People with a hookworm infection may show some of the following symptoms:

  • a skin rash in one area that is typically red, raised, and itchy
  • weight loss
  • loss of appetite
  • breathing complications, such as wheezing and a cough
  • fever
  • stomach pain
  • diarrhea
  • extreme tiredness and weakness
  • iron-deficiency anemia or malnutrition
  • physical and thought development problems in children due to severe anemia
  • heart failure and widespread tissue swelling as a result of severe anemia

Diagnosis

A number of tests can help diagnose a hookworm infection and its effects.

These include:

  • a stool sample to check for hookworm eggs
  • blood samples to check for the presence of anemia or a lack of certain nutrients

Treatment

A doctor will normally recommend taking certain medications — albendazole, mebendazole, or pyrantel pamoate — for 1 to 3 days trusted Source to treat the parasitic infection, according to the CDC. These drugs are antihelminthics or anti-parasitic drugs.

Those with severe anemia may need iron supplementation.

The drugs listed above have pregnancy warnings. People should tell their healthcare provider if they are or may be pregnant so that they can have the right treatment.

In places where hookworm is common, those who are at risk may receive preventive drug treatment to protect them from an infection.

Prevention

Some preventive measures can help a person avoid contracting a hookworm infection.

These include:

  • wearing shoes, especially in soiled areas with a high risk of contamination
  • using a barrier to prevent the skin from touching the soil when sitting on the ground
  • avoiding consuming soil or unwashed foods that may be contaminated with hookworm
  • not passing stool in the soil or outdoors
  • not using fertilizer made from human feces
  • covering children’s sandboxes
  • taking safety precautions, such as wearing gloves and shoes when gardening
  • treating pet dogs and cats for hookworm

The risk of hookworm is low in the U.S., but people should take care when travelling to holiday destinations where it is common.

Hookworm and pets

hookworms and pets

Hookworms can be present in household pets, including dogs and cats. The animal strain can spread to humans in some cases.

For this reason, the Companion Animal Parasite Council (CAPC) recommend fecal testing in cats and dogs, with more frequent testing in the kitten and puppy age groups.

The CAPC recommend at least four intestinal parasite tests in the first year and a minimum of two a year afterward. As with any preventive testing, the animals’ health and certain risk factors will guide how often testing is needed.

To prevent parasitic infection, the CAPC recommend year-round broad-spectrum parasite control and also recommend promptly removing animal stool from litter boxes and yards.

Other public safety measures that people can take to reduce hookworm transmission include:

  • following leash laws when in public
  • preventing dogs from wandering neighborhoods or scavenging
  • following a vet’s advice about deworming

For additional information on cat and dog hookworm infections, visit the CAPC’s website.

People should speak to a doctor if they:

  • think they may be at risk for contracting hookworm
  • are experiencing symptoms of infection after travelling or coming into contact with soil used by pets

A veterinarian can offer advice on screening and treatment of a dog or cat.

W:

I live in Illinois and I have pets. Do I need to worry about hookworm?

D:

Unfortunately, yes.

According to the Illinois state website, hookworm may be present statewide in Illinois.

This is due, in large part, to the moist, hot climate found in many of the woodland, aquatic, and prairie regions in Illinois. However, hookworms can be present wherever people and animals live.

Following some of the habits mentioned above will help avoid ever having to deal with them.

These include avoiding contact with human stool, washing produce, and working with your veterinarian to determine the best parasite prevention plan for your pets.

* Answers represent the opinions of medical experts. All content is strictly informational and should not be considered medical advice.

Posted on Leave a comment

Diagnosing of congestive heart failure (CHF) in dogs

Early detection and treatment are key

Unfortunately, common clinical signs of congestive heart failure (CHF), such as coughing and difficulty breathing, are nonspecific and may mimic respiratory disease, making diagnosis difficult.

Following a series of key steps and using some of the latest diagnostic tools recommended by the Cardiac Education Group (CEG) and other cardiologists can help you identify and treat CHF earlier in canine patients.  The CEG recommends the following diagnostic tools as essential for diagnosing CHF:

Clinical history

Signalment is an important consideration when diagnosing congestive heart failure (CHF) in dogs. In particular, it is important to assess the following factors:

History: To obtain the most complete clinical history about a dog, ask the pet owner specific questions about the following factors:

  • Changes in attitude, behavior, and activity level: Exercise intolerance, depression, and fatigue are all signs associated with CHF.
  • Changes in breathing: Labored breathing or an increased resting respiratory rate can indicate CHF.
  • Changes in appetite and weight: These factors can also signal a heart problem.
  • Coughing: Include evaluation of onset and type of cough. Dogs with pulmonary edema have acute cough. Dogs with chronic heart disease have mild, intermittent cough.
  • Sleeping habits: Restlessness at night is commonly associated with CHF.
  • Previous evidence of heart disease: Heart murmurs or radiographic changes, such as an enlarged heart, can indicate heart disease.
  • Therapy: Consider any preceding treatments, including compliance with heartworm prevention programs.

Physical examination

Performing a thorough annual physical examination on your canine patients provides an excellent opportunity to evaluate dogs for the presence of heart disease. The following factors provide important clues to cardiac status and can help detect congestive heart failure (CHF) in dogs:

  • Weight and body condition: When cardiac disease occurs, cachexia (weight loss) is more likely to indicate CHF.
  • Respiration: Evaluate rate and effort of respiration. Although normal respiratory rates vary depending on breed, temperature, and weight, a presentation at the 2009 ACVIM forum indicated that a resting respiratory rate higher than 35/minute in a dog (at home) is highly suggestive of heart failure. Accuracy can be further improved by determining a baseline respiration rate and watching for subsequent increases in individual dogs. When the resting respiratory rate increases by 25% to 50% or is above 35/minute, a diagnosis of CHF should be considered.
  • Heart rate: CHF causes cardiac output to decrease, which in turn results in an increased heart rate. So, animals with relatively slow or normal heart rates (80 to 120 beats per minute) are less likely to have CHF than those with higher heart rates.
  • Jugular distension: Include examination of the jugular veins. The presence of abnormal jugular pulses (extending more than one-third of the way up the neck) can indicate CHF in dogs.
  • Mucous membranes and skin turgor: Evaluating mucous membranes in a dog provides an indicator of hydration status, peripheral perfusion, and tissue oxygenation.
  • Abdominal distension: Palpate the abdomen to check for abdominal distension, which can be caused by hepatomegaly or ascites.
  • Pulse abnormalities: Identifying arterial pulse abnormalities, such as hypokinetic (small stroke volume), hyperkinetic (large pulse pressure), and pulse deficits (arrhythmias) can help determine if a dog has CHF. Pulse deficits found in the femoral artery while simultaneously auscultating the heartbeat can be indicative of an arrhythmia.

Cardiac and pulmonary auscultation

Auscultation of the heart is used to detect abnormalities such as:

  • Cardiac arrhythmias—irregular heartbeat, tachycardia, or bradycardia
  • Heart murmurs—consider intensity
  • Extra heart sounds—gallops, clicks

Areas of auscultation in the heart should include the mitral, pulmonic, and aortic valves on the left thoracic wall and the tricuspid valves on the right thorax. A heart murmur often is the first detectable sign of heart disease. If a heart murmur is detected, thoracic radiographs (including calculation of a Vertebral Heart Score) should be done to determine if the dog’s heart is enlarged.

Auscultation of the lungs is used to detect the presence of normal bronchovesicular sounds or abnormal lung sounds, such as crackles and wheezes.

Thoracic radiographs

Thoracic radiographs provide information about heart size, status of pulmonary vasculature, and changes in the lungs to help differentiate left-sided congestive heart failure (CHF) from primary pulmonary disease.

Evaluating the size and shape of the heart silhouette on radiographs is a key step in diagnosing and assessing severity of cardiac disease in dogs.  Radiographic results should be used along with clinical signs and physical exam to determine if CHF treatment is indicated.

How to calculate Vertebral Heart Score (VHS)

Calculating a VHS for dogs from radiographic silhouettes can help veterinarians make cardiac assessments.

Additional diagnostic tests

Serologic tests

Serum biochemistries, PCV/TS or complete blood count (CBC) panels, and urinalysis should be completed in all dogs prior to initiating any treatment for congestive heart failure (CHF).

NT-proBNP is a new blood test for cardiac disease in veterinary patients. NT-proBNP is released in proportion to stretch and stress in the heart and is used to assess the severity of heart disease. Patients in heart failure have significant elevations of NT-proBNP, adding useful diagnostic information in the evaluation of patients with compatible clinical signs. Studies have also shown that elevated NT-proBNP levels are seen in patients with impending heart failure and in those with a poorer prognosis.

Echocardiography and electrocardiograms

Echocardiography is useful in determining a definitive diagnosis of the underlying structural disease as it provides a quantitative evaluation of heart chamber size, wall thickness, and the dynamic changes that occur during the cardiac cycle.

In addition, the electrocardiogram (ECG) is the only diagnostic method that provides specific information about the etiology of an arrhythmia. The ECG is a good follow-up test when a cardiac arrhythmia is discovered during a routine physical exam.

Posted on Leave a comment

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in dogs

dcm normal heart

DCM is the second most common cause of canine congestive heart failure (CHF), following atrioventricular valvular insufficiency (AVVI). DCM is a disease of the heart muscle that causes loss of myocardial contractility. The heart becomes weakened and enlarged and cannot pump blood efficiently, resulting in decreased cardiac output and tissue perfusion.

dcm normal heart

DCM can have a quick onset and progresses rapidly in dogs. The preclinical disease phase can vary from months to years, but the disease progresses more quickly than AVVI. Treatment with pharmaceuticals is the most effective intervention and focuses on controlling preload, afterload, and contractility.

NormalHeart DCMheart in dogs

Breeds at risk for DCM

Breeds at risk for DCM

DCM primarily affects middle-aged, and large- or giant-breed dogs. Breeds most susceptible to DCM include Afghan Hound, American Cocker Spaniel, Boxer, Dalmatian, Doberman Pinscher, English Cocker Spaniel, Great Dane, Newfoundland and St. Bernard.

You can buy Vetmedin for heart treatment here:

Vetmedin 10 mg (30 tabs)

Vetmedin 10 mg (50 tabs)

Vetmedin 10 mg (100 tabs)

 

Vetmedin 5 mg

 

Vetmedin 1.25 mg (30 tabs)

Vetmedin 1.25 mg (50 tabs)

Vetmedin 1.25 mg (100 tabs)

 

You can buy another product with the same active ingredient (Pimobendan) – PimoPet

PimoPet 2.5 mg (30 tabs)

PimoPet 2.5 mg (100 tabs)

 

PimoPet 5 mg (30 tabs)

PimoPet 5 mg (100 tabs)

Posted on Leave a comment

Signs of congestive heart failure (CHF) in dogs

Vetmedin pimobendan for dogs

In the early stages, signs of atrioventricular valvular insufficiency (AVVI) or dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are most likely to be subclinical. This preclinical phase can last for months or years. However, as the heart deteriorates and cardiac output decreases over time, AVVI and DCM ultimately lead to congestive heart failure (CHF) in dogs.

Vetmedin pimobendan for dogs

Common clinical signs of CHF that may appear as AVVI or DCM progresses include:

  • Coughing
  • Changes in breathing
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Shortness of breath
    • Increased respiratory rate
  • Changes in behavior
    • Lack of energy
    • Depressed or withdrawn
  • Exercise intolerance
    • Reluctance to go for walks
    • Tires easily
  • Poor appetite and weight loss
  •  and fainting
  • Restlessness, especially at night

As soon as clinical signs of CHF appear, therapeutic intervention is indicated. No cure for CHF exists and surgical intervention is rarely practical in canine patients, so therapeutic goals focus on improving clinical signs and prolonging life.

You can buy Vetmedin here:

Vetmedin 10 mg (30 tabs)

Vetmedin 10 mg (50 tabs)

Vetmedin 10 mg (100 tabs)

 

Vetmedin 5 mg

 

Vetmedin 1.25 mg (30 tabs)

Vetmedin 1.25 mg (50 tabs)

Vetmedin 1.25 mg (100 tabs)

 

You can buy another product with the same active ingredient (Pimobendan) – PimoPet

PimoPet 2.5 mg (30 tabs)

PimoPet 2.5 mg (100 tabs)

 

PimoPet 5 mg (30 tabs)

PimoPet 5 mg (100 tabs)

Posted on Leave a comment

Atrioventricular valvular insufficiency (AVVI) in dogs

avvi normal in dogs

Overview

AVVI is a degenerative disease that damages heart valve leaflets as it progresses. This damage prevents heart valves from closing properly, allowing blood to leak backward into the atrium. This leakage eventually results in a heart murmur detectable via auscultation. Valve leakage impairs cardiac function and circulation, ultimately leading to congestive heart failure (CHF).

AVVI in action

Progression of AVVI

AVVI, the most frequent cause of CHF in dogs, is a slowly progressing disease. The prevalence of this disease gradually increases with age. AVVI affects:

  • 10% of dogs 5 to 8 years of age
  • 20% to 25% of dogs 9 to 12 years of age
  • 30% to 35% of dogs over age 13 years

This increase is especially dramatic in small breeds, with up to 85% showing evidence of valvular lesions at necropsy by 13 years of age.

Breeds at risk for AVVI

AVVI occurs most often in small- to medium-sized breeds of dogs. Breeds most susceptible to AVVI include the Boston Terrier, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, Chihuahua, Miniature Pinscher, Miniature and Toy Poodle, Pekingese, and Pomeranian. Ultimately, all small breed dogs are at risk for CHF due to AVVI.

You can buy Vetmedin for heart treatment here:

Vetmedin 10 mg (30 tabs)

Vetmedin 10 mg (50 tabs)

Vetmedin 10 mg (100 tabs)

 

Vetmedin 5 mg

 

Vetmedin 1.25 mg (30 tabs)

Vetmedin 1.25 mg (50 tabs)

Vetmedin 1.25 mg (100 tabs)

 

You can buy another product with the same active ingredient (Pimobendan) – PimoPet

PimoPet 2.5 mg (30 tabs)

PimoPet 2.5 mg (100 tabs)

 

PimoPet 5 mg (30 tabs)

PimoPet 5 mg (100 tabs)

Posted on Leave a comment

Levamisole Hydrochloride. What is Levamisole Hydrochloride?

Nematode In direct Light

What is Levamisole Hydrochloride?

Levamisole Hydrochloride (Levamisole HCL), is an anthelmintic (anti-worm) agent commonly used in large livestock such as cattle, pigs, and sheep. In 1971 it was found to have immunostimulatory properties and investigation into its use in humans began to expand. Currently, Levamisole HCL is used in humans for diseases related to imbalances in the regulation of immune responses or deficiencies of the immune system, including autoimmune diseases, chronic and recurrent diseases, chronic infections, and cancer. It has beneficial effects on host defense mechanisms and restores depressed immune responses in animals and humans.  Another interesting use of levamisole in humans is as a treatment for common warts (verruca Vulgaris).

Levamisole 10%

News of its anthelmintic efficacy and immune system benefits has been known among aquatic hobbyists for years. The problem, however, is that there is not much in the way of definitive information on its use and application in the hobby. Anecdotal accounts of how it has worked for those ‘outside the box’ aquarists who first braved its use with fish, and accounts of personal experience with Levamisole in individual aquariums are helpful, but the ‘your mileage may vary’ factor is immense. A word about its usefulness in treating internal parasites in the ornamental fish trade has spread, but information regarding its use is limited and sometimes conflicting. From the information I have found thus far, Levamisole HCL is safe to use in aquaria and effective against many internal parasites, especially nematodes, when used in appropriate dosages. It does not harm the bio-filter, plants, invertebrates, or uninfected fish. As an added benefit, it boosts the immune competence of fish, humans, large animals, birds, and some reptiles.

This article hopes to pull together what scientific information is available, a bunch of individual accounts, apply some common sense and put together in one place a helpful guide to the use of Levamisole for treating aquarium fish.

Why would anyone use a cattle/pig/sheep de-wormer in a fish tank?

Do you want to know why?

Internal parasites that can be treated effectively by levamisole are endemic. They are everywhere. Fish are also susceptible to these parasites. Since the parasites are what we are attempting to eliminate from our fish, we need a medication that is designed to affect those parasites.

Does the medication need to be labeled for ‘fish only’ use? Not if you know what the medication is composed of, whether it contains any chemicals or additives that would be harmful to fish, if it will work in water, how it works, and what the possible side effects may be. Many medicines that are used in ‘fish only’ preparations are also used in humans and animals.

Medications like:

  • Neomycin
  • Kanamycin
  • Erythromycin
  • Magnesium Sulfate

In fact, manufacturers of fish-specific medications are beginning to package their products in loose powdered or liquid form.

The single most important factor once you’ve decided that a non-fish-specific medication is safe to use in aquaria is determining the correct dosage. We’ll look into that factor later. For now, let’s look at its chemical composition and how it works.

Levamisole Hydrochloride is the LEVO-rotatory form (left-handed) of tetramisole. The DEXTRO isomer (right-handed) contributes to the toxicity, but not the therapeutic effect so it has been removed in marketed preparations.

Levamisole HCL is light-sensitive. Store product in tightly closed light-resistant containers. Leave off tank lights when treating.

There is also a phosphate form of Levamisole.

 

How does Levamisole HCL work?

How does Levamisole HCL work as an antiparasitic agent?

Levamisole HCL is absorbed through the gut, can also be absorbed through the skin, and is distributed throughout the body. Levamisole affects the neurotransmitters and paralyzes the worm (spastic paralysis). The fish then passes the inactive worms. Good gravel vacuuming is advised after treatment to remove the paralyzed (but still live) worms.  It is not ovicidal, which means it will not affect eggs already present, but it will affect the larval stage of the worm. To ensure complete eradication of the parasite treat again after remaining eggs have hatched.

How does Levamisole HCL work as an immunomodulator?

The mechanism of action for its immunostimulating effects is not well understood. It is believed that it restores cell-mediated immune function in peripheral T-lymphocytes and stimulates phagocytosis by monocytes. The drug appears to restore depressed immune function rather than to stimulate response to above-normal levels. There are multitudes of medical studies being done with its use in humans and animals, the goal being to attain an understanding of its immunomodulating mechanism. The mechanism will be defined, with time. However, at the time of the writing of this article, there is no complete answer to this question. For us, it is enough to know that it does stimulate immune function in fish that are suffering due to parasites or disease.

levamisole injection
Levamisole for injection 8%

What if I overdose my fish?

The LD-50 (the lethal dose of a compound for 50% of animals exposed) of levamisole is 250 mg/l per 24 hours.  This level of dosage is much higher than that which is prescribed for use in a freshwater bath (the method used in our fish tanks). Only extreme overdosing with this medication will result in death to your fish. Few accounts of adverse side effects in aquaria have been noted even with much higher than currently accepted appropriate dosing.

How long will it stay in my fish and how do I get it out of my tank?

Levamisole HCL is rapidly absorbed into the digestive system. Less than 6% of the medication is excreted unchanged in the urine and feces. Half-lives for several species have been recorded:

Cattle: 4 – 6 hours
Swine: 3.5 – 6.8 hours
Dogs:   1.8 – 4 hours
I have not been able to locate any studies that determine the half-life of Levamisole HCL in fish. If you know of any, please post a comment to this article.

Absorption is systemic within 3 – 4 hours. Within three days 70% of the medication will be gone from the fish via its excretory system. The vast majority of the compound will have been metabolized by your fish. The remainder can be removed by water changes and/or adding activated charcoal to your filtration system.

De-bunking a common misunderstanding about Levamisole HCL.

Does Levamisole HCL require a pH of below 7.0 to be effective?

In a word, NO.

This common misconception regarding the uselessness of Levamisole HCL  in higher pH water needed a definitive answer.

Let’s apply some common sense.  When we look around at the other uses of Levamisole HCL we find that one common formulation of Levamisole HCL is administered by adding it to livestock drinking water.  Are all water supplies the same? It seemed unlikely to me that among all the farms using this medication, every water supply would have a pH below 7.0.

After some digging around all over the Internet and phone calls to various Veterinarians and chemical companies, the answer I was given by Dr. Hal Sinclair of IVX Animal Health was both clear and simple. Levamisole base (C11H12N2S) is unstable in water and will degrade rapidly as pH levels increase. Levamisole HCL will not. It’s the addition of the hydrochloride molecule that makes the difference.

Levamisole HCL is stable in water for up to 90 days and will do its job in aquaria with both low and high pH values.

Taking the space to go through all this chemistry may be more than you want to know.  However, chemistry plays a large role in fishkeeping. It helps to be somewhat comfortable with the basics to comprehend the Nitrogen cycle, and to balance the aquatic environments in which our fish live. Planted tank gurus especially, spend time understanding the chemistry of their tanks for both fish and plant benefit.

Chemistry has already helped us to answer the pH question which has been plaguing the community for years. We will need it again in order to determine the effective dosing of Levamisole HCL to cure our fish. Knowing the chemical formula, the molecular weight, and the specific gravity of the molecule will give us the information we need to make some calculations that will help us to do just that.

levamisoleWhich parasites will respond to treatment with Levamisole?

Levamisole has been found highly effective in the treatment of mature and developing immature stages of major stomach and bowel worm species in cattle and sheep including gastrointestinal worms such as Stomach wormsHaemonchus spp; Ostertagia spp; Trichostrongylus spp; Roundworms Nematodirus spp (which include threadworms);  Cooperia spp; Nodular wormsOesophagostomum; Chabertia spp; HookwormsBunostomum spp; Necator spp; and Ancylostoma spp; and Lungworms— Dictyocaulus spp. Nematodes (roundworms) in particular are a common problem. Nematodes such as Capillaria, Eustronggylides, Camallanus, and Contracaecum are common among many fish species. Levamisole is highly effective as a treatment against nematode species.

It is INEFFECTIVE as a treatment for:

  • Cestodes (tapeworms)
    For Cestodes the recommended treatment is Praziquantel.
  • Trematodes (flatworms or flukes)
    For Monogenean Trematodes with a direct life cycle, the suggested treatment is Formalin, administered as a short-term or prolonged bath.
    For  Digenean Trematodes which have a complex life cycle, using differing hosts, the best control is to break the life cycle of the parasite. Elimination of the first intermediate host, the freshwater snail is often recommended.

How can I tell which parasite is affecting my fish?

The best way to determine if your fish is suffering from parasites, and which kind they are is to have the fish examined by a fish health specialist (veterinarian). Accurate diagnosis of an internal parasite infestation in aquatic animals is often outside of the ability of the average hobbyist. Stool samples, slides, microscopes, and sometimes necroscopy, or in the worst-case scenario, autopsy, is the most effective way to determine exactly what parasite is inside your fish. Many of us are just not equipped or knowledgeable enough to perform the necessary diagnostic procedures.  What we can do is observe our fish, become aware of what symptoms may indicate parasitic infection, and learn what methods are best used to treat them.

Levamisole HCL is not a cure-all but it is a good first line of defense against many parasites common to wild-caught fish.

Nematode infections in fish will present with one or more of the following externally observable symptoms:

    1. Hemorrhaging (bloody streaks in fins or body)
    2. White/translucent stringy feces
    3. Inflammation
    4. External lumps or nodules
    5. Necrosis (dead or dying tissue)
    6. Cysts
    7. Granulomas – which are a reaction by immune cells trying to wall off some foreign body (like a worm). They can look like little brown rocks in the shape of the worm but will have a distinct clear edge.
    8. Wasting
    9. Bloated abdomen with fish exhibiting otherwise normal behavior
    10. Worms protruding from the anus (specifically Camallanus)

    A little bit about parasites in general and nematodes in particular.

    Healthy fish can carry a low load of parasites without ever showing outwardly visible signs. Fish that are stressed or sick are immune-compromised and will find it difficult to keep down parasitic infections. Fish carrying a heavy parasite load also become more susceptible to secondary bacterial infections. Because parasites are everywhere, wild-caught fish can be assumed to be harboring parasites whether they appear healthy or not. Quarantine tank treatment with Levamisole HCL prior to placing new wild-caught fish into an established community tank is advised. This will both eliminate parasites (those affected by Levamisole HCL) and boost the immune system of your fish, helping them keep at bay any secondary infections as a result of parasitic damage.

    The severity of damage caused by parasitic infection depends on a number of factors. The number of worms present in the fish, age and species of the fish, and the sites of infection all affect the level of damage caused by the parasite. Most adult nematodes are found in the digestive tract. However, adult and other life stages of worms can be found in muscle tissue, organs, and tissues surrounding the organs. Levamisole HCLworks primarily in the digestive tract so parasites located in organs or tissues may be unaffected by treatment.

    Nematodes have two major categories of life stages, direct and indirect. As indirect hosts, fish can be either the final host, excreting eggs that begin the life cycle all over again or the intermediate host as shown below:

Nematode In direct Light
Indirect Life Cycle with fish as an intermediate host

In this case, the fish is infected with the parasite, then eaten by another fish, bird, or mammal where the parasites will develop into reproductive adults.

Indirect Life Cycle with fish as final host
Indirect Life Cycle with fish as final host

The nematode eggs/larvae enter an intermediate host before being eaten by fish which are the final host. The eggs develop into reproductive adults within the fish. Some intermediate hosts are snails, Tubifex worms, or insect larvae.

Direct Life Cycle
Direct Life Cyclemisole

Nematodes with a direct life cycle do not need an intermediate host. One fish can spread the infection directly to another by eating either eggs or larvae.

Because Levamisole HCL is not harmful to the bio-filter, fish, plants, or invertebrates you can safely treat them within the community tank. In fact, it is best to do so to eliminate possible parasites in any intermediate hosts that may be in the tank. Fish that are suffering from secondary bacterial infections due to parasitic worm damage should be removed from a quarantine tank for appropriate antibiotic treatment.

How do I use Levamisole Hydrochloride?

Some resistance to Levamisole HCL action has been noted in farm animals. Be sure to complete the full course of treatment to avoid the development of resistant strains in fish. Because it is light sensitive, store any unused medication in opaque containers. Remove any carbon used in your filtration as it will absorb the chemical. Turn off UV lighting.

Levamisole HCL is available in several formulations. Below are some manufacturer packaging examples. There are many. You can buy different types of Levamisole HERE and if you are in the EU, so you can buy HERE.

This is the formulation I use in my tanks. I find it easiest to use and most convenient to store in the small dosages needed for aquarium treatments. Divide the powder into the amount you need for treatment. Pack the unused portions in baggies in single or multiple dose sizes within the bottle with the tank size it’s intended to treat noted. Keep at room temperature (with directions for use) until needed. Shelf life for the powder is one or two years, depending on which manufacturer you consult. Store unused liquid solution for up to 90 days in the refrigerator.

Examples of the bolus variety and the injectable are on the right.

The bolus form is messy. It requires crushing the pill, determining the amount of powder needed, dissolving in tank water, filtering through a coffee filter then adding the liquid to the tank.

The only injectable form of levamisole I have been able to locate is the phosphate form. If you locate one, please comment here with the link to the supplier. Store below 70F (21C) and avoid freezing. The label says to use it ‘as soon as possible after the original seal is broken.  This would lead me to believe that the shelf life is not very long.

There are other forms out there, such as Levamisole HCL drench, oral solutions, oral feed mixes, topical solutions, and gel formulas. Check the formulation composition for additional medicines, additives, or agents before using them in your fish tank. Some forms are unsuitable for use with fish due to other ingredients.

I find the powdered soluble formula the most cost-effective and best for storage, dosing, and use.

levamisole powder 8%
levamisole powder 8%

Recommended Dosage

Dr. Roy Yanong, V.M.D. recommends the following for treating fish with internal parasites susceptible to Levamisole HCL:

In answer to your question, the dosage rate for levamisole in a bath is 2 mg/L (2 ppm) for 24 hours (followed by 70-100% water change, and siphon the bottoms of the tanks), with repeat treatments necessary–retreat in 2-3 weeks, and probably one more time after that. This is regardless of size of fish.

The 2 mg/L  dosage rate (of the active ingredient Levamisole) is currently (2007) the level being used by the scientific community. It effectively paralyzes levamisole susceptible parasites at that concentration. Increasing the dosage level does not seem to have any greater effect. Paralysis of the worms takes place when that level of Levamisole HCL is present in the host–your fish. Dr. Yanong recommends that whenever possible, try to diagnose what parasite your fish are harboring prior to treatment. Work with an ‘exotic pet’s veterinarian, or a fish health specialist to ensure you are treating with the right medication.

Dosage Calculation

Some helpful conversions:

For 100% Levamisole Hydrochloride in powder form (Levasole, Soluble Pig wormer)

1 teaspoon = 4 grams
.5 teaspoon = 2 grams
.25 teaspoon = 1 gram
1 US Gallon = 3.78 Liters

Here is where our chemistry comes in.

The molecular formula for Levamisole is         C11H12N2S
The molecular formula for Levamisole HCL is  C11H12N2S•HCl

Because we know the formula we can figure out the Grams/mole off the periodic table which is:

~204.32g/mole (rounded to hundreds) for levamisole
~240.78g/mole for Levamisole HCL because of the HCL (hydrochloride) attachment.

The active anthelmintic ingredient is the Levamisole, not the Hydrochloride, so to attain a 2ppm concentration of Levamisole using Levamisole HCL we will need more Levamisole HCL because of the size (weight) of the molecule. For example, if we know we need 50mg (at 2mg/L this will treat a 25L sized tank or about 6 gallons) of Levamisole but we are using Levamisole HCL, to achieve the same concentration of the Levamisole base we need to do some conversion which works like this:

50mg=.05g

then divide that by 204.32 (weight in grams of Levamisole)

to get moles which are 2.447.

Then because it’s 1:1 (1-mole levamisole each (basically)) you take

2.447  times 240.78 (so you get the correct weight for added HCL)

and you get .0589g which is ~59mg.

Thus 59 mg of Levamisole HCl is equivalent to 50 mg of levamisole base.

 

So:

2ppm = 2 mg/L Levamisole base

which converts to:

2.36 mg/L  Levamisole HCL or

~9 mg/Gallon or 90 mg/10 gallons

How do you know how many milligrams of Levamisole you need? More calculating:

We need 2.36 mg/L (or 9 mg/Gallon) of Levamisole HCL to treat our tank at the recommended dosage.

If we measure our tanks in Liters:

2.36 x (the size of your tank in liters) = mg/L of Levamisole HCL to treat your tank.

If we measure our tanks in gallons:

10 gallons = ~38 Liters

For a 10g tank that means:

2.36 x 38 = 89.68 mg or ~90mg of Levamisole HCL will treat 10 gallons with a 2 ppm concentration.

Going by chefkeith’s calculator a very small amount of levamisole powder is needed to treat a 10g tank (.076 grams, or .019 teaspoons). Now I don’t know about you, but I don’t own measuring devices that will enable me to accurately measure that tiny amount. Since overdosing Levamisole HCL (even massively so!) has been common practice for a long time, I generally eyeball my powder measurements into usable sizes.  Since a quarter teaspoon is  about 1 gram, and we need roughly one-tenth of that amount for a 10g tank treatment I do the following:

  • Measure a level 1/4 teaspoon onto a smooth surface.
  • Take a razor blade and divide that quarter teaspoon into 10 relatively even piles. Each tiny pile is one treatment for 10 gallons.
  • Store each tiny pile in tiny plastic baggies (or tin foil) with a ’10g label in an opaque container.

Not very scientific, I know. But it does get me close, and I am confident enough in the safety of the medication that I have no fear for my fish. In fact, prior to this article, I had previously treated fish with Levamisole concentrations as high as 800 mg/10 gallons and saw no negative effects.

Summary

Levamisole HCL is a safe and effective anthelmintic for use in aquariums. It does not harm the biofilter, plants, or invertebrates (including shrimp) in your tank and has the added benefit of stimulating the immune system of the tank inhabitants. I highly recommend its inclusion in any fishkeeper’s arsenal of medications. For those of us who purchase wild-caught fish, it is something that should be part of our quarantine tank treatments for newly purchased fish.

Hobbyists have been using it for years now and there are few reports of negative effects on fish. At higher dosages than recommended, there have been some reports of cloudy water at initial treatment, and very few reports of rapid respiration or stress-related behavior in fish. One reported result of treatment stated yellow water, clamped fins, and heavy breathing in cichlids, as well as explosive plant growth. After a couple of days, the negative effects on the cichlids seemed to disappear so he continued the treatment regime.

Dosing levels prior to this information was all over the charts. Without exception, the dosages used were higher. Some were much higher. Recommendations ranged from 1-2 mg/l up to as much as 21 mg/l. Based on the research for this article, it’s my hope that hobbyists will face less confusion regarding the use of Levamisole HCL in aquaria.

Below is the treatment protocol I have used for treating parasites with Levamisole HCL. It is somewhat more intensive than the treatment recommended by Dr. Yanong, but it works for me. Your mileage may vary, but here it is:

  1. Determine the appropriate dosage for your tank.
  2. Treat with the lights off and increased aeration.
  3. Perform a largish water change prior to treatment.
  4. Treat once for 24 hours.
  5. Do a largish water change and vacuum to remove any paralyzed worms in the substrate.
  6. Return tank to normal lighting/feeding/cleaning cycle.
  7. Treat again in 5-7 days after a water change. If you know the parasite you are treating and its life cycle adjust the timing for the second treatment accordingly.
  8. Do another water change with a gravel vacuum.
  9. Return to normal schedule.
  10. Treat a third time after 1 – 2 weeks. (This may be overkill, but due to the lack of negative side effects, and because I have had a previously treated clown loach relapse after over a month, I now do a third treatment.)
  11. Do another good vacuuming with water change and consider your treatment complete.

Usually, I see a marked improvement in vitality and appetite after the first treatment. Don’t let this convince you that the fish is cured! Complete a full course of treatment. In commercial fish enterprises and in livestock there have been reports of various parasites developing resistance to Levamisole treatment.

Acknowledgments

I’d like to offer my thanks to many on the forums for their input during the search for information on this article.

Posted on Leave a comment

Terrier Dog Breed Information + Photo

Russian black Terrier

Terrier

Terrier dogs: what are the varieties and their features (with photo)

Terriers are a whole group, which includes a large list of dogs.  Today, about 30 species are known.  Most of the dogs are small to medium in size and intended for burrowing.  But there is also a whole subgroup of fighting dogs among them.  Translated from French “terrier” is “earthen dog”.  Nowadays, these dogs are most often used not only for hunting but also as decoration.  But when starting them, it is worth remembering that dogs have their own needs and characteristics.  Almost all of the terrier breeds known today were bred in the British Isles.  The first mentions of them date back to the 16th century.  They differ in size and color, but they also have similar features.  Almost all representatives of the species are active dogs that love to hunt.  They also make good watchmen.  Even the smallest representatives of the breed can warn of danger with a sonorous bark.  Most terriers are very successful in hunting small game.  This is a fox, hare, beaver, badger, etc.  But some dogs, like the bull terrier, are good at hunting wild boar.  Agility and an excellent sense of smell are very helpful for pets in this trade.

Terrier species: list of breeds with descriptions

Australian Terrier

Australian Terrier
Australian Terrier

A companionable doggie of small size.  used for hunting small animals.  Also perfectly protects the house and property.  Very hardy and courageous.  They can attack snakes and monitor lizards, perfectly guard cattle.

Australian Silky Terrier

Australian Silky Terrier
Australian Silky Terrier

Funny, sociable, and companionable dogs.  They adore children and love to play active games with them.  Very obedient and level-headed.  They retain hunting instincts from their ancestors, but they are rarely used for hunting.

American Hairless Terrier

American Hairless Terrier
American Hairless Terrier

They have an unusual appearance.  Smart, quick-witted, and friendly.  Their advantage is that they have no hair, so the dogs are free of parasites and fleas.  Also, you will not encounter the problem of hair clumps all over the house.

Bedlington Terrier

Bedlington Terrier
Bedlington Terrier

Despite their pretty appearance and small size, these are real predators.  But in the family circle, this is a loving and gentle pet who loves attention and hugs.

Border Terrier

Border Terrier
Border Terrier

Demands a lot of attention and constant training.  But it’s worth it because they make loyal and loving pets.  They have a calm and balanced character.

Boston Terrier

Boston Terrier
Boston Terrier

Are considered gentlemen among terriers.  They are very flexible.  Excellent companions will be loyal to all family members.

Welsh Terrier

Welsh Terrier
Welsh Terrier

Welsh, has an inexhaustible supply of energy.  It seems that they are ready to endlessly play, frolic, and run.  Because of this, they get along well with children.  They are also very quick-witted and learn quickly.

Glen of Imaal Terrier

Glen of Imaal Terrier
Glen of Imaal Terrier

Glen of Imaal Terrier Houses are very calm, but in the open air, they transform, turning into energetic dogs.  They love to be with their families.  They cannot be left alone for a long time.

Dandy Dinmont Terrier

Dandy Dinmont Terrier
Dandy Dinmont Terrier

Cheerful and will love every family member.  Despite their small size, they are distinguished by masculinity.  Can be a little stubborn at an early age.

Cairn Terrier

Cairn Terrier
Cairn Terrier

Due to their good looks, these dogs have often become a movie star.  Despite the cute little face, they have very powerful hunting instincts.  Great watchdogs.  They are well trained and capable of performing even the most difficult tricks.

Carrie Blue Terrier

Carrie Blue Terrier
Carrie Blue Terrier

Once in a family, they form a very strong relationship with each member of it.  They are ready to follow the owner everywhere.  Very loyal and loving pets.

Lakeland Terrier

Lakeland Terrier
Lakeland Terrier

Resolute and energetic dogs.  Lovers of running, jumping, swimming, and playing.  Very brave, get along well with other pets.

Manchester Terrier

Manchester Terrier
Manchester Terrier                                                                                                                                                                   

An excellent companion with a cheerful disposition.  He is ready to accompany his owners everywhere.  The owners should be careful, as these crumbs can be easily injured.

Jagd Terrier

Jagd Terrier
Jagd Terrier

A working breed, it is considered one of the best hunters in the world.  Unlike most terriers, it was not bred in Great Britain, but Germany.

Norwich Terrier

Norwich Terrier
Norwich Terrier

Sociable dog.  Incredibly loyal.  They make very good watchmen.  An affectionate pet that gets along well with both people and other animals.

Norfolk Terrier

Norfolk Terrier
Norfolk Terrier

One of the smallest working terriers.  Very attached to their owners.  At home, he is incredibly affectionate and sociable.

Sealyham Terrier

Sealyham Terrier
Sealyham Terrier

Although small in size, very strong and hardy dogs.  Super devotees.  They are distinguished by their energy and cheerfulness.

Skye Terrier

Skye Terrier
Skye Terrier

Adorable pets.  They have good hunting and working qualities.  Form strong bonds with owners.

Staffordshire Terrier

Staffordshire Terrier
Staffordshire Terrier

Have a calm and balanced disposition.  They will be happy to share with you cozy evenings on the couch while watching a movie.  Faithful, loving, and reliable dogs.

Tibetan Terrier

Tibetan Terrier
Tibetan Terrier

Loyal and good-natured dogs.  They are distinguished by a well-expressed protective instinct.  Curious, they like long walks and outdoor games.

Fox Terrier

Fox Terrier
Fox Terrier

Energetic, curious, and incredibly loyal dogs.  They love to take part in all family affairs.  They love to frolic in the fresh air and play with the owners.

Yorkshire Terrier

Yorkshire Terrier
Yorkshire Terrier

Many consider these dogs to be a simple indoor dog or toy that should decorate the interior or act as an accessory for the owner.  But in fact, these are smart and loyal dogs, excellent defenders.  Hosts should remember that they need care and attention.

Scottish Terrier

Scottish Terrier
Scottish Terrier

This energetic dog is suitable for people with an active lifestyle.  Funny and adorable.  By buying such a dog, you will get a real friend who will be loyal to every family member.

Jack Russell Terrier

Jack Russell Terrier
Jack Russell Terrier

Real Screen Stars.  Excellent sportsmen, active and energetic, good hunters.  They are considered one of the best dogs for the family.

Bull Terrier

Bull Terrier
Bull Terrier

Despite the rather formidable appearance and not a very good reputation, bull terriers are very good-natured and loyal dogs.  If you pay attention to them and educate them well, they will become affectionate and friendly.

American Pit Bull Terrier

American Pit Bull Terrier
American Pit Bull Terrier

Banned in many European countries and some states of America due to its bad reputation.  But with the right upbringing, friendly and affectionate pets grow out of these dogs.  They are excellent defenders and are very loyal to the owner.

Russian Toy Terrier

Russian Toy Terrier
Russian Toy Terrier

A charming miniature dog.  There are smooth and long-haired.  Belong to the group of decorative dogs.  Affectionate and devoted to the owner.

West Highland White Terrier

West Highland White Terrier
West Highland White Terrier

Dogs with a cute face that love active games and fun.  Loyal pets.  They love hunting and are incredibly transferred to the owner.

Russian black Terrier

Russian black Terrier
Russian black Terrier

Possesses excellent watchdog and security qualities.  Very easy to learn thanks to a sharp mind and quick wit.  Incredibly loyal and cute dogs.

Terriers: features of maintenance and care

Most of the breed has a hard coat.  But among the varieties, there are also long-haired and smooth-haired with soft fur.  Dogs of all categories should be brushed periodically – some more often, others less often.

Basic rules for caring for all terriers: bathe and trim the nails as needed, check the ears, eyes, and teeth, sometimes clean with special means, make up the correct diet, if you prepare food for the dog yourself, then do not forget about vitamin complexes, you need to raise a puppy from an early age, find daily time for training, then the pet will grow up as obedient terrier – these are not the dogs that you can only walk occasionally.  They are active and need constant training, long walks several times a day.  Many of them are excellent swimmers, you should also take the dogs out from time to time to hunt, pay attention to your pet, do not leave one for a long time, otherwise he will start to yearn, do not forget to vaccinate on time and visit the veterinarian on time.  You can read more about the different breeds of terriers, as well as about the peculiarities of their care, on our website. Some sources of information say about terrier cancer cases. All these cases are rare and treatable by meds for dogs. They could be bought in Online Veterinary Pharmacy.

Here you can find a lot of Online Veterinary Supplies for your pet. There are not only toys and sports requisites in Online Pet Pharmacy, but also many other things.