Hookworm is a parasite that causes infection in people of all ages. It enters the body through the skin and can lead to a number of complications.
Hookworm is most likely to occur in a moist, hot climate. However, they occur in many locations around the world, including the United States.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Trusted Source, between 576 and 740 million people worldwide have hookworm infections. It was once common in the southeastern parts of the U.S., but improvements in living conditions have reduced its occurrence.
However, wherever humans and animals live together, including pets, infection is possible.
There are different species of hookworm. The ones that infect humans include the Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus.
Hookworm can spread when a person who has the infection defecates in the soil or when people use human feces on soil as a fertilizer.
If eggs are present in the feces, they can hatch after 1 to 2 days under the right conditions.
After hatching, the larvae can survive for 3 to 4 weeks in the soil, according to the Merck Manuals. They take 5 to 10 days to mature in the soil.
When a person comes into contact with this soil, hookworm larvae can pass through their skin.
This can happen if the person:
walks barefoot on soil that contains the larvae
swallows soil particles, for example on unwashed salad leaves
After entering the body, the hookworm larvae make their way into the body’s bloodstream and lymphatic vessels. These systems carry the larvae to the lungs. From there, the person can cough them up and swallow them.
If a person digests mature hookworms, the worms attach to the small intestine and gain nutrients through human blood. In some cases, the person may develop anemia as they lose blood to the hookworms. Worms may live for over 2 years.
Mating also occurs in the small intestine. From here, thousands of eggs can enter the human feces.
Hookworms cannot pass to another individual through personal contact. Infection can only happen when the eggs mature into larvae in soil.
Certain groups of people have a higher risk of contracting the parasite.
those who live in warm, tropical, or subtropical areas
people who spend time in areas where there is poor sanitation management and hygiene, especially if walking barefoot or with skin-to-soil contact
those who are pregnant or of childbearing age
young children who have contact with contaminated soil or sandboxes
workers who have contact with contaminated soil, especially farmers, plumbers, electricians, and exterminators
people who sunbathe on contaminated sand
The risk increases in areas where people use “night soil” or fertilizer made from human feces.
People with a hookworm infection may show some of the following symptoms:
a skin rash in one area that is typically red, raised, and itchy
loss of appetite
breathing complications, such as wheezing and a cough
extreme tiredness and weakness
iron-deficiency anemia or malnutrition
physical and thought development problems in children due to severe anemia
heart failure and widespread tissue swelling as a result of severe anemia
A number of tests can help diagnose a hookworm infection and its effects.
a stool sample to check for hookworm eggs
blood samples to check for the presence of anemia or a lack of certain nutrients
A doctor will normally recommend taking certain medications — albendazole, mebendazole, or pyrantel pamoate — for 1 to 3 days trusted Source to treat the parasitic infection, according to the CDC. These drugs are antihelminthics or anti-parasitic drugs.
Those with severe anemia may need iron supplementation.
The drugs listed above have pregnancy warnings. People should tell their healthcare provider if they are or may be pregnant so that they can have the right treatment.
In places where hookworm is common, those who are at risk may receive preventive drug treatment to protect them from an infection.
Some preventive measures can help a person avoid contracting a hookworm infection.
wearing shoes, especially in soiled areas with a high risk of contamination
using a barrier to prevent the skin from touching the soil when sitting on the ground
avoiding consuming soil or unwashed foods that may be contaminated with hookworm
not passing stool in the soil or outdoors
not using fertilizer made from human feces
covering children’s sandboxes
taking safety precautions, such as wearing gloves and shoes when gardening
treating pet dogs and cats for hookworm
The risk of hookworm is low in the U.S., but people should take care when travelling to holiday destinations where it is common.
Hookworm and pets
Hookworms can be present in household pets, including dogs and cats. The animal strain can spread to humans in some cases.
For this reason, the Companion Animal Parasite Council (CAPC) recommend fecal testing in cats and dogs, with more frequent testing in the kitten and puppy age groups.
The CAPC recommend at least four intestinal parasite tests in the first year and a minimum of two a year afterward. As with any preventive testing, the animals’ health and certain risk factors will guide how often testing is needed.
To prevent parasitic infection, the CAPC recommend year-round broad-spectrum parasite control and also recommend promptly removing animal stool from litter boxes and yards.
Other public safety measures that people can take to reduce hookworm transmission include:
following leash laws when in public
preventing dogs from wandering neighborhoods or scavenging
following a vet’s advice about deworming
For additional information on cat and dog hookworm infections, visit the CAPC’s website.
People should speak to a doctor if they:
think they may be at risk for contracting hookworm
are experiencing symptoms of infection after travelling or coming into contact with soil used by pets
A veterinarian can offer advice on screening and treatment of a dog or cat.
I live in Illinois and I have pets. Do I need to worry about hookworm?
According to the Illinois state website, hookworm may be present statewide in Illinois.
This is due, in large part, to the moist, hot climate found in many of the woodland, aquatic, and prairie regions in Illinois. However, hookworms can be present wherever people and animals live.
Following some of the habits mentioned above will help avoid ever having to deal with them.
These include avoiding contact with human stool, washing produce, and working with your veterinarian to determine the best parasite prevention plan for your pets.
* Answers represent the opinions of medical experts. All content is strictly informational and should not be considered medical advice.
Levamisole Hydrochloride (Levamisole HCL), is an anthelmintic (anti-worm) agent commonly used in large livestock such as cattle, pigs, and sheep. In 1971 it was found to have immunostimulatory properties and investigation into its use in humans began to expand. Currently, Levamisole HCL is used in humans for diseases related to imbalances in the regulation of immune responses or deficiencies of the immune system, including autoimmune diseases, chronic and recurrent diseases, chronic infections, and cancer. It has beneficial effects on host defense mechanisms and restores depressed immune responses in animals and humans. Another interesting use of levamisole in humans is as a treatment for common warts (verruca Vulgaris).
News of its anthelmintic efficacy and immune system benefits has been known among aquatic hobbyists for years. The problem, however, is that there is not much in the way of definitive information on its use and application in the hobby. Anecdotal accounts of how it has worked for those ‘outside the box’ aquarists who first braved its use with fish, and accounts of personal experience with Levamisole in individual aquariums are helpful, but the ‘your mileage may vary’ factor is immense. A word about its usefulness in treating internal parasites in the ornamental fish trade has spread, but information regarding its use is limited and sometimes conflicting. From the information I have found thus far, Levamisole HCL is safe to use in aquaria and effective against many internal parasites, especially nematodes, when used in appropriate dosages. It does not harm the bio-filter, plants, invertebrates, or uninfected fish. As an added benefit, it boosts the immune competence of fish, humans, large animals, birds, and some reptiles.
This article hopes to pull together what scientific information is available, a bunch of individual accounts, apply some common sense and put together in one place a helpful guide to the use of Levamisole for treating aquarium fish.
Why would anyone use a cattle/pig/sheep de-wormer in a fish tank?
Do you want to know why?
Internal parasites that can be treated effectively by levamisole are endemic. They are everywhere. Fish are also susceptible to these parasites. Since the parasites are what we are attempting to eliminate from our fish, we need a medication that is designed to affect those parasites.
Does the medication need to be labeled for ‘fish only’ use? Not if you know what the medication is composed of, whether it contains any chemicals or additives that would be harmful to fish, if it will work in water, how it works, and what the possible side effects may be. Many medicines that are used in ‘fish only’ preparations are also used in humans and animals.
In fact, manufacturers of fish-specific medications are beginning to package their products in loose powdered or liquid form.
The single most important factor once you’ve decided that a non-fish-specific medication is safe to use in aquaria is determining the correct dosage. We’ll look into that factor later. For now, let’s look at its chemical composition and how it works.
Levamisole Hydrochloride is the LEVO-rotatory form (left-handed) of tetramisole. The DEXTRO isomer (right-handed) contributes to the toxicity, but not the therapeutic effect so it has been removed in marketed preparations.
Levamisole HCL is light-sensitive. Store product in tightly closed light-resistant containers. Leave off tank lights when treating.
There is also a phosphate form of Levamisole.
How does Levamisole HCL work?
How does Levamisole HCL work as an antiparasitic agent?
Levamisole HCL is absorbed through the gut, can also be absorbed through the skin, and is distributed throughout the body. Levamisole affects the neurotransmitters and paralyzes the worm (spastic paralysis). The fish then passes the inactive worms. Good gravel vacuuming is advised after treatment to remove the paralyzed (but still live) worms. It is not ovicidal, which means it will not affect eggs already present, but it will affect the larval stage of the worm. To ensure complete eradication of the parasite treat again after remaining eggs have hatched.
How does Levamisole HCL work as an immunomodulator?
The mechanism of action for its immunostimulating effects is not well understood. It is believed that it restores cell-mediated immune function in peripheral T-lymphocytes and stimulates phagocytosis by monocytes. The drug appears to restore depressed immune function rather than to stimulate response to above-normal levels. There are multitudes of medical studies being done with its use in humans and animals, the goal being to attain an understanding of its immunomodulating mechanism. The mechanism will be defined, with time. However, at the time of the writing of this article, there is no complete answer to this question. For us, it is enough to know that it does stimulate immune function in fish that are suffering due to parasites or disease.
What if I overdose my fish?
The LD-50 (the lethal dose of a compound for 50% of animals exposed) of levamisole is 250 mg/l per 24 hours. This level of dosage is much higher than that which is prescribed for use in a freshwater bath (the method used in our fish tanks). Only extreme overdosing with this medication will result in death to your fish. Few accounts of adverse side effects in aquaria have been noted even with much higher than currently accepted appropriate dosing.
How long will it stay in my fish and how do I get it out of my tank?
Levamisole HCL is rapidly absorbed into the digestive system. Less than 6% of the medication is excreted unchanged in the urine and feces. Half-lives for several species have been recorded:
Cattle: 4 – 6 hours
Swine: 3.5 – 6.8 hours
Dogs: 1.8 – 4 hours I have not been able to locate any studies that determine the half-life of Levamisole HCL in fish. If you know of any, please post a comment to this article.
Absorption is systemic within 3 – 4 hours. Within three days 70% of the medication will be gone from the fish via its excretory system. The vast majority of the compound will have been metabolized by your fish. The remainder can be removed by water changes and/or adding activated charcoal to your filtration system.
De-bunking a common misunderstanding about Levamisole HCL.
Does Levamisole HCL require a pH of below 7.0 to be effective?
In a word, NO.
This common misconception regarding the uselessness of Levamisole HCL in higher pH water needed a definitive answer.
Let’s apply some common sense. When we look around at the other uses of Levamisole HCL we find that one common formulation of Levamisole HCL is administered by adding it to livestock drinking water. Are all water supplies the same? It seemed unlikely to me that among all the farms using this medication, every water supply would have a pH below 7.0.
After some digging around all over the Internet and phone calls to various Veterinarians and chemical companies, the answer I was given by Dr. Hal Sinclair of IVX Animal Health was both clear and simple. Levamisole base (C11H12N2S) is unstable in water and will degrade rapidly as pH levels increase. Levamisole HCL will not. It’s the addition of the hydrochloride molecule that makes the difference.
Levamisole HCL is stable in water for up to 90 days and will do its job in aquaria with both low and high pH values.
Taking the space to go through all this chemistry may be more than you want to know. However, chemistry plays a large role in fishkeeping. It helps to be somewhat comfortable with the basics to comprehend the Nitrogen cycle, and to balance the aquatic environments in which our fish live. Planted tank gurus especially, spend time understanding the chemistry of their tanks for both fish and plant benefit.
Chemistry has already helped us to answer the pH question which has been plaguing the community for years. We will need it again in order to determine the effective dosing of Levamisole HCL to cure our fish. Knowing the chemical formula, the molecular weight, and the specific gravity of the molecule will give us the information we need to make some calculations that will help us to do just that.
Which parasites will respond to treatment with Levamisole?
Levamisole has been found highly effective in the treatment of mature and developing immature stages of major stomach and bowel worm species in cattle and sheep including gastrointestinal worms such as Stomach worms—Haemonchus spp; Ostertagia spp; Trichostrongylus spp; Roundworms— Nematodirus spp (which include threadworms); Cooperia spp; Nodular worms—Oesophagostomum; Chabertia spp; Hookworms—Bunostomum spp; Necator spp; and Ancylostoma spp; and Lungworms— Dictyocaulus spp. Nematodes (roundworms) in particular are a common problem. Nematodes such as Capillaria, Eustronggylides, Camallanus, and Contracaecum are common among many fish species. Levamisole is highly effective as a treatment against nematode species.
It is INEFFECTIVE as a treatment for:
For Cestodes the recommended treatment is Praziquantel.
Trematodes (flatworms or flukes)
For Monogenean Trematodes with a direct life cycle, the suggested treatment is Formalin, administered as a short-term or prolonged bath.
For Digenean Trematodes which have a complex life cycle, using differing hosts, the best control is to break the life cycle of the parasite. Elimination of the first intermediate host, the freshwater snail is often recommended.
How can I tell which parasite is affecting my fish?
The best way to determine if your fish is suffering from parasites, and which kind they are is to have the fish examined by a fish health specialist (veterinarian). Accurate diagnosis of an internal parasite infestation in aquatic animals is often outside of the ability of the average hobbyist. Stool samples, slides, microscopes, and sometimes necroscopy, or in the worst-case scenario, autopsy, is the most effective way to determine exactly what parasite is inside your fish. Many of us are just not equipped or knowledgeable enough to perform the necessary diagnostic procedures. What we can do is observe our fish, become aware of what symptoms may indicate parasitic infection, and learn what methods are best used to treat them.
Levamisole HCL is not a cure-all but it is a good first line of defense against many parasites common to wild-caught fish.
Nematode infections in fish will present with one or more of the following externally observable symptoms:
Hemorrhaging (bloody streaks in fins or body)
White/translucent stringy feces
External lumps or nodules
Necrosis (dead or dying tissue)
Granulomas – which are a reaction by immune cells trying to wall off some foreign body (like a worm). They can look like little brown rocks in the shape of the worm but will have a distinct clear edge.
Bloated abdomen with fish exhibiting otherwise normal behavior
Worms protruding from the anus (specifically Camallanus)
A little bit about parasites in general and nematodes in particular.
Healthy fish can carry a low load of parasites without ever showing outwardly visible signs. Fish that are stressed or sick are immune-compromised and will find it difficult to keep down parasitic infections. Fish carrying a heavy parasite load also become more susceptible to secondary bacterial infections. Because parasites are everywhere, wild-caught fish can be assumed to be harboring parasites whether they appear healthy or not. Quarantine tank treatment with Levamisole HCL prior to placing new wild-caught fish into an established community tank is advised. This will both eliminate parasites (those affected by Levamisole HCL) and boost the immune system of your fish, helping them keep at bay any secondary infections as a result of parasitic damage.
The severity of damage caused by parasitic infection depends on a number of factors. The number of worms present in the fish, age and species of the fish, and the sites of infection all affect the level of damage caused by the parasite. Most adult nematodes are found in the digestive tract. However, adult and other life stages of worms can be found in muscle tissue, organs, and tissues surrounding the organs. Levamisole HCLworks primarily in the digestive tract so parasites located in organs or tissues may be unaffected by treatment.
Nematodes have two major categories of life stages, direct and indirect. As indirect hosts, fish can be either the final host, excreting eggs that begin the life cycle all over again or the intermediate host as shown below:
In this case, the fish is infected with the parasite, then eaten by another fish, bird, or mammal where the parasites will develop into reproductive adults.
The nematode eggs/larvae enter an intermediate host before being eaten by fish which are the final host. The eggs develop into reproductive adults within the fish. Some intermediate hosts are snails, Tubifex worms, or insect larvae.
Nematodes with a direct life cycle do not need an intermediate host. One fish can spread the infection directly to another by eating either eggs or larvae.
Because Levamisole HCL is not harmful to the bio-filter, fish, plants, or invertebrates you can safely treat them within the community tank. In fact, it is best to do so to eliminate possible parasites in any intermediate hosts that may be in the tank. Fish that are suffering from secondary bacterial infections due to parasitic worm damage should be removed from a quarantine tank for appropriate antibiotic treatment.
How do I use Levamisole Hydrochloride?
Some resistance to Levamisole HCL action has been noted in farm animals. Be sure to complete the full course of treatment to avoid the development of resistant strains in fish. Because it is light sensitive, store any unused medication in opaque containers. Remove any carbon used in your filtration as it will absorb the chemical. Turn off UV lighting.
Levamisole HCL is available in several formulations. Below are some manufacturer packaging examples. There are many. You can buy different types of Levamisole HERE and if you are in the EU, so you can buy HERE.
This is the formulation I use in my tanks. I find it easiest to use and most convenient to store in the small dosages needed for aquarium treatments. Divide the powder into the amount you need for treatment. Pack the unused portions in baggies in single or multiple dose sizes within the bottle with the tank size it’s intended to treat noted. Keep at room temperature (with directions for use) until needed. Shelf life for the powder is one or two years, depending on which manufacturer you consult. Store unused liquid solution for up to 90 days in the refrigerator.
Examples of the bolus variety and the injectable are on the right.
The bolus form is messy. It requires crushing the pill, determining the amount of powder needed, dissolving in tank water, filtering through a coffee filter then adding the liquid to the tank.
The only injectable form of levamisole I have been able to locate is the phosphate form. If you locate one, please comment here with the link to the supplier. Store below 70F (21C) and avoid freezing. The label says to use it ‘as soon as possible after the original seal is broken. This would lead me to believe that the shelf life is not very long.
There are other forms out there, such as Levamisole HCL drench, oral solutions, oral feed mixes, topical solutions, and gel formulas. Check the formulation composition for additional medicines, additives, or agents before using them in your fish tank. Some forms are unsuitable for use with fish due to other ingredients.
I find the powdered soluble formula the most cost-effective and best for storage, dosing, and use.
Dr. Roy Yanong, V.M.D. recommends the following for treating fish with internal parasites susceptible to Levamisole HCL:
In answer to your question, the dosage rate for levamisole in a bath is 2 mg/L (2 ppm) for 24 hours (followed by 70-100% water change, and siphon the bottoms of the tanks), with repeat treatments necessary–retreat in 2-3 weeks, and probably one more time after that. This is regardless of size of fish.
The 2 mg/L dosage rate (of the active ingredient Levamisole) is currently (2007) the level being used by the scientific community. It effectively paralyzes levamisole susceptible parasites at that concentration. Increasing the dosage level does not seem to have any greater effect. Paralysis of the worms takes place when that level of Levamisole HCL is present in the host–your fish. Dr. Yanong recommends that whenever possible, try to diagnose what parasite your fish are harboring prior to treatment. Work with an ‘exotic pet’s veterinarian, or a fish health specialist to ensure you are treating with the right medication.
Some helpful conversions:
For 100% Levamisole Hydrochloride in powder form (Levasole, Soluble Pig wormer)
The molecular formula for Levamisole is C11H12N2S
The molecular formula for Levamisole HCL is C11H12N2S•HCl
Because we know the formula we can figure out the Grams/mole off the periodic table which is:
~204.32g/mole (rounded to hundreds) for levamisole
~240.78g/mole for Levamisole HCL because of the HCL (hydrochloride) attachment.
The active anthelmintic ingredient is the Levamisole, not the Hydrochloride, so to attain a 2ppm concentration of Levamisole using Levamisole HCL we will need more Levamisole HCL because of the size (weight) of the molecule. For example, if we know we need 50mg (at 2mg/L this will treat a 25L sized tank or about 6 gallons) of Levamisole but we are using Levamisole HCL, to achieve the same concentration of the Levamisole base we need to do some conversion which works like this:
then divide that by 204.32 (weight in grams of Levamisole)
to get moles which are 2.447.
Then because it’s 1:1 (1-mole levamisole each (basically)) you take
2.447 times 240.78 (so you get the correct weight for added HCL)
and you get .0589g which is ~59mg.
Thus 59 mg of Levamisole HCl is equivalent to 50 mg of levamisole base.
2ppm = 2 mg/L Levamisole base
which converts to:
2.36 mg/L Levamisole HCL or
~9 mg/Gallon or 90 mg/10 gallons
How do you know how many milligrams of Levamisole you need? More calculating:
We need 2.36 mg/L (or 9 mg/Gallon) of Levamisole HCL to treat our tank at the recommended dosage.
If we measure our tanks in Liters:
2.36 x (the size of your tank in liters) = mg/L of Levamisole HCL to treat your tank.
If we measure our tanks in gallons:
10 gallons = ~38 Liters
For a 10g tank that means:
2.36 x 38 = 89.68 mg or ~90mg of Levamisole HCL will treat 10 gallons with a 2 ppm concentration.
Going by chefkeith’s calculator a very small amount of levamisole powder is needed to treat a 10g tank (.076 grams, or .019 teaspoons). Now I don’t know about you, but I don’t own measuring devices that will enable me to accurately measure that tiny amount. Since overdosing Levamisole HCL (even massively so!) has been common practice for a long time, I generally eyeball my powder measurements into usable sizes. Since a quarter teaspoon is about 1 gram, and we need roughly one-tenth of that amount for a 10g tank treatment I do the following:
Measure a level 1/4 teaspoon onto a smooth surface.
Take a razor blade and divide that quarter teaspoon into 10 relatively even piles. Each tiny pile is one treatment for 10 gallons.
Store each tiny pile in tiny plastic baggies (or tin foil) with a ’10g label in an opaque container.
Not very scientific, I know. But it does get me close, and I am confident enough in the safety of the medication that I have no fear for my fish. In fact, prior to this article, I had previously treated fish with Levamisole concentrations as high as 800 mg/10 gallons and saw no negative effects.
Levamisole HCL is a safe and effective anthelmintic for use in aquariums. It does not harm the biofilter, plants, or invertebrates (including shrimp) in your tank and has the added benefit of stimulating the immune system of the tank inhabitants. I highly recommend its inclusion in any fishkeeper’s arsenal of medications. For those of us who purchase wild-caught fish, it is something that should be part of our quarantine tank treatments for newly purchased fish.
Hobbyists have been using it for years now and there are few reports of negative effects on fish. At higher dosages than recommended, there have been some reports of cloudy water at initial treatment, and very few reports of rapid respiration or stress-related behavior in fish. One reported result of treatment stated yellow water, clamped fins, and heavy breathing in cichlids, as well as explosive plant growth. After a couple of days, the negative effects on the cichlids seemed to disappear so he continued the treatment regime.
Dosing levels prior to this information was all over the charts. Without exception, the dosages used were higher. Some were much higher. Recommendations ranged from 1-2 mg/l up to as much as 21 mg/l. Based on the research for this article, it’s my hope that hobbyists will face less confusion regarding the use of Levamisole HCL in aquaria.
Below is the treatment protocol I have used for treating parasites with Levamisole HCL. It is somewhat more intensive than the treatment recommended by Dr. Yanong, but it works for me. Your mileage may vary, but here it is:
Determine the appropriate dosage for your tank.
Treat with the lights off and increased aeration.
Perform a largish water change prior to treatment.
Treat once for 24 hours.
Do a largish water change and vacuum to remove any paralyzed worms in the substrate.
Return tank to normal lighting/feeding/cleaning cycle.
Treat again in 5-7 days after a water change. If you know the parasite you are treating and its life cycle adjust the timing for the second treatment accordingly.
Do another water change with a gravel vacuum.
Return to normal schedule.
Treat a third time after 1 – 2 weeks. (This may be overkill, but due to the lack of negative side effects, and because I have had a previously treated clown loach relapse after over a month, I now do a third treatment.)
Do another good vacuuming with water change and consider your treatment complete.
Usually, I see a marked improvement in vitality and appetite after the first treatment. Don’t let this convince you that the fish is cured! Complete a full course of treatment. In commercial fish enterprises and in livestock there have been reports of various parasites developing resistance to Levamisole treatment.
I’d like to offer my thanks to many on the forums for their input during the search for information on this article.
is an Infectious disease of dogs caused by a virus, characterized by conjunctivitis, diarrhea, nervous phenomena, suppression of the immune system, with a long course.
Infection occurs in several ways: orally (alimentary), aerogenically through the discharge of sick dogs. Sick animals secrete the virus for up to 3 months. Indirect transmission (through clothing, dishes, food) also occurs, but is less significant.
The incubation period is 3-6 days. Possible intrauterine infection, when puppies fall ill after the disappearance of maternal immunity in 4-6 weeks.
All secretions of a sick animal are contagious, and can remain so for up to 8 weeks.
Dogs that have been infected with the carnivore plague virus remain immune to it for the rest of their lives.
fever, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, purulent discharge from the eyes and nose, tonsillitis, pharyngitis. Pregnant females have abortions.
In addition to the above there are also specific forms of manifestation of this viral infection:
gastrointestinal form-defeat of the gastrointestinal tract
respiratory form-bronchopneumonia develops, sometimes with severe shortness of breath and collapse of blood circulation
eye changes – photophobia, uveitis, keratitis with ulceration is often observed. In severe cases
, skin blindness occurs – the formation of blisters and pustules with severe hyperemia (redness) in the lower abdomen, on the inner side of the thighs and ears. Otitis externa is also possible. Plague can be good for demodectic mange
nervous form of plague-occurs after the respiratory form fades, rarely simultaneously; it is manifested by epileptic seizures, convulsive contractions of the chewing muscles, mental disorders, Manege movement, TIC, ataxia, paresis, paralysis
hyperkeratosis of the finger crumb-a rare form of carnivorous plague that occurs during the 2nd week of the disease or after it.
Cautious in respiratory and intestinal forms, uncertain in the nervous form without temperature, unfavorable in severe pneumonic and febrile, nervous forms.
With the help of consistent vaccination prevention, the incidence of plague can be kept under control. Puppies are usually vaccinated at the age of 8 weeks and after 3-4 weeks with a combined vaccine.
Heterogeneous complex of primary viral and secondary bacterial infections of the upper respiratory tract. Since these diseases are not limited to nurseries, it is more correct to talk about infectious lariongotracheobronchitis.
The types of viruses vary from country to country, with each outbreak, and are related to the type of dog keeping (isolated or group). Quite often, this disease can be complicated by secondary infections (pathogens of which can be Bordetella, streptococci, staphylococci, pasteurels, klebsiels, mycoplasmas, etc.).
occurs by airborne droplets and rapidly covers the entire dog population.
The incubation period can last from 2 to 30 days .
Symptoms and course of the disease:
Hidden infections. With clinically manifested uncomplicated infections, a convulsive dry cough with or without disorders of the General condition, serous nasal discharge and tonsillitis come to the fore.
In most cases, the participation of dogs in an exhibition or competition, staying in an overexposure point, or an individual stressful situation (change of owner, transportation)
Additionally, fever, General disorders, and signs of pneumonia are detected.
Factors predisposing to a severe course of the disease are:
admission from the kennel, with a constantly changing composition of animals
multiple infections (suppression of the animal’s immunity)
lack of vaccination, incorrect vaccination
mass worm infestation and stress in young dogs
Is favorable, as in 7-14 days spontaneous recovery occurs, with the exception of weakened young dogs
Timely vaccination with a complex vaccine (which is based on the spectrum of pathogens in the affected areas).
Infectious hepatitis in dogs
Canine adenovirus 1 causes liver inflammation. It is related to adenovirus 2 (causes laryngotracheitis), so this disease has respiratory symptoms.
Isolation of the virus:
Begins from the 5th day through saliva, urine, feces, and with urine up to 6 months. In a low-temperature environment, the virus persists for up to 9 months. At room temperature for 3-11 days. For disinfection, 5% calcium chloride, sodium hydroxide, and iodine preparations are used.
in most dogs, this disease is hidden.
Clinically, the disease manifests itself quite rarely and usually simultaneously with the plague of dogs (in young dogs).
Subacute or chronic course is characterized by subclinical and non-specific disorders.
In acute cases, the mortality rate in puppies is almost 100%. In adult dogs, it falls by 10-50%
vaccination of dogs.
Parvovirus enteritis, parvovirosis.
Infection occurs through food contaminated with feces, a virus found on the fur of recovering animals, on clothing and care items.
The incubation period is 4-7 days before the onset of clinical symptoms. Isolation of the virus begins in 3-5 days (with feces) and sometimes lasts up to 25 days.
The virus persists in the environment for up to 6 months ( in feces). Isolation of the virus by dogs with a subclinical course is of particular importance for the spread of the disease.
The main symptoms:
vomiting (persistent vomiting is characteristic even in recovering animals)
a decrease in temperature or Vice versa fever.
pain in the abdominal cavity.
Most animals die in the first 4 days of illness. After that, the chance of recovery increases. The duration of the disease is 1-2 weeks (on average). This disease can cause heart complications (myocarditis). Puppies with myocardial complications die from non-purulent myocardial necrosis, pulmonary edema, pleural effusion or ascites after shortness of breath, cyanosis, noisy breathing, suffocation, fever.
Timely vaccination at 12-14 weeks of life with revaccination at 16-18 weeks.
Then the annual vaccination.
A dangerous disease that is zooanthroponosis (transmitted to humans).
It is always fatal, and is transmitted by biting or blinding damaged skin to sick animals.
At the moment (after the introduction of the anti-rabies vaccine), the main source of infection is wild animals.
Occurs directly through the saliva of sick animals containing the virus, which through a bitten wound or abrasions on the skin gets into the muscle and then into the nerve tissue.
Not every bite leads to infection.
The incubation period is 14-60 days, in some cases it can be 6-12 months (according to some sources, up to 6 years).
Paralysis, impaired coordination of movements. Atypical forms of flow have also become quite common (see below).
classic treatment in three stages
Prodromal stage. Behavior change (lasts from a few hours to 4 days): dogs are capricious, very friendly or Vice versa, avoid people, are timid, restless, try to hide, bark or bite unmotivated, itching may occur at the site of the bite and “catching flies”.
In the initiation phase. It is characterized by aggressiveness and wandering movements (violent form of rabies, lasts 1-4 days). Increased anxiety, mood swings, anorexia, gnawing of foreign objects, drooling, hoarse barking, increased aggressiveness and desire to run away, attacks on other dogs, possible violation of coordination of movement and epileptic seizures.
Paralytic or depressive form. 3-4 days before death, characterized by progressive paralysis.
without the previous stage of arousal, paralysis develops. This form has become more common.
Symptoms: expressionless, dull look, the dog listlessly sits down anywhere; drooling, drooping lower jaw, hoarse voice, inability to eat; pupils of different shapes, there is a loss of the 3rd century, strabismus; in the end, paralysis of the trunk and death.
Chronic, lasting up to 3 months or more, subclinical course. Symptoms: diarrhea or possibly intestinal paralysis at the beginning, then paresis, motor disorders, depression, followed by temporary improvement. The diagnosis is made at the autopsy of the animal.
Prevention consists of annual vaccination of dogs. There are also vaccines for wild animals that have successfully proven themselves and led to the extinction of rabies among dogs in disadvantaged areas.
Leptospirosis is a common worldwide disease that is also dangerous for humans.
A person is not a distributor of leptospirosis, but can be infected with it through urine or blood. Infection occurs through direct contact with the urine of sick dogs or leptospiron carriers (the virus is isolated up to 4 years.) Without causing a local reaction, Leptospira penetrates the mucous membranes of the digestive or sexual apparatus, conjunctiva or skin damage, multiplies on the spot and enters the blood. The incubation period is 4-12 days. The isolation of Leptospira presumably begins on the 7th day.
Forms of course and symptoms:
Mild, atypical forms occur with fever, General disorders and weakness, but without organic manifestations or jaundice.
Acute, severe course can lead to death in 48-72 hours.
The liver and kidneys are affected (depending on the pathogen), kidney failure and gastrointestinal disorders develop. Some dogs recover, others develop a chronic form.
The chronic form of the course develops from acute forms as a result of irreversible disorders or occur due to the preservation of leptospir in the renal tubules or liver.
acute renal failure
system disorders circulatory
of breath visual impairment
Depends mainly on the severity and course of kidney and liver damage.
Mortality in severe cases is about 30%.
Regular vaccination, preventing the dog from drinking from puddles and stagnant reservoirs.
The bestbroad spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic for Dogs, for Cats, for Fish and Chickens is Fenbendazole
Fenbendazole is a broad spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic used against gastrointestinal parasites including: giardia, roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, the tapeworm genus Taenia (but not effective against Dipylidium caninum, a common dog tapeworm), pinworms, aelurostrongylus, paragonimiasis, strongyles, and strongyloides that can be administered to sheep, cattle, horses, fish, dogs, cats, rabbits, and seals.
In this article, we would like to tell you a little about such an affordable and at the same time very effective veterinary remedy as Fenbendezole. To begin with, we would like to say a few words about its pharmacological properties.
Pharmacological (biological) properties and effects of Fenbendazole (Panacur)
Fenbendezole is an anthelmintic of the benzimidazole group. Fenbendazole (5-phenyl-thio-2-benzimidazole carbamate) has a wide spectrum of nematodocidal and cestodocidal action, is active against adult forms, larvae and eggs of gastrointestinal and lung nematodes, as well as cestodes that are parasitic in animals.
The mechanism of action of fenbendazole is the destruction of microtubules in the intestinal cells of helminths and disruption of energy processes, which leads to the death of parasites.
When administered orally, fenbendazole is easily absorbed in the intestine and distributed in the organs and tissues of the animal; it is excreted from the body in unchanged form and as metabolites, mainly with bile and partially with urine, in lactating animals also with milk.
In the recommended doses, it is very well tolerated by animals without any side effects.
This drug is prescribed to young cattle, sheep, goats, foals, piglets, dogs and cats for therapeutic and preventive purposes.:
Fenbendezole is administered to animals according to the type and dosage of Fenbendazole (powder, tablets, capsules …), in the following doses. Young cattle with moniesiasis – 150 mg per 15 kg of animal weight; with dictyocaulosis, haemonhoses, bunostomiasis, esophagostomiasis, nematodyrosis, ostertagiasis, habertiosis, cooperiosis and strongyloidiasis – 150 mg per 20 kg of animal weight.
Sheep and goats with moniesiosis – 150 mg per 15 kg of animal weight; with dictyocaulosis, hemonchosis, bunostomosis, esophagostomosis, nematodirosis, ostertagiosis, trichostrongyloidosis, habertiosis, cooperiosis, strongyloidosis – 150 mg per 30 kg of animal weight.
Foals with paraskaridosis and strongylatosis – 150 mg per 15 kg of animal weight.
Piglets with ascariasis, esophagostomosis, strongyloidosis, trichocephalosis, metastrongyloidosis – 150 mg per 30 kg of animal weight.
Adult dogs and cats with toxocarosis, toxascaridosis, hookworm, uncinariosis, dipilidiosis, teniidosis – 150 mg per 1.5 kg of animal weight.
Puppies and kittens (aged over 3 weeks) with toxocarosis, toxascaridosis, hookworm, uncinariosis, dipilidiosis and teniidosis 1 time/day for 3 consecutive days in a single dose of 150 mg per 3 kg of animal weight.
Special diets and laxatives are not required before deworming.
Side effects and complications when using fenbendazole in accordance with the indications and dosage regimen, as a rule, are not observed.
With increased individual sensitivity of the animal to fenbendazole and the appearance of allergic reactions, the use of the drug is discontinued.
Symptoms of overdose in animals were not detected.
Contraindications to the use of the drug FENBENDAZOLE
— individual hypersensitivity of the animal to fenbendazole.
Do not use the drug:
— emaciated and sick with infectious diseases animals;
— puppies and kittens younger than 3 weeks of age.
Special instructions and personal prevention measures
Slaughter of animals for meat is allowed no earlier than 14 days after deworming. In case of forced slaughter before the deadline, the meat can be used as food for carnivores or for the production of meat and bone meal.
Milk from dairy animals should not be used for food purposes within 3 days after deworming. Milk obtained earlier than the deadline can be used after heat treatment in animal feed.
It is forbidden to smoke drink or eat while working with the medicine. At the end of work, wash your hands with warm water and soap.
If you decide to deworm your animal with Fenbendezole, you can safely recommend the following products, but please note that fenebendazole exists in different forms (powder, tablets, capsules, liquid), first decide in what form it will be more convenient for you to give it. From myself, I would like to make a small note that Fenbendezole in the form of capsules is very convenient to use, except for the smallest animals.
Characteristics of the substance Ivermectin Refers to avermectins.
Pharmacology Pharmacological action – local anti-inflammatory. Pharmacodynamics
It has an anti-inflammatory effect by suppressing the production of inflammatory cytokines induced by lipopolysaccharides. The anti-inflammatory properties of ivermectin have been observed in animal models of skin inflammatory processes. Ivermectin also causes the death of parasites, mainly through selective binding and high affinity for glutamate-regulated chlorine channels found in the nerve and muscle cells of invertebrates. The mechanism of action of ivermectin in the treatment of inflammatory skin lesions in rosacea is not fully understood, but it may be associated with both anti-inflammatory effects and the ability to cause the death of Demodex mites, which, in turn, can be a factor causing skin inflammation.
Suction. The absorption of ivermectin was assessed in a clinical study involving adult patients with severe papulopustular rosacea, using the maximum tolerated dose. In equilibrium (after 2 weeks of treatment), the highest mean (± standard deviation) plasma concentrations of ivermectin were observed within (10 ± 8) h after application (Cmax – (2.1 ± 1) ng / ml, range – 0 , 7-4 ng / ml), and the highest mean (± standard deviation) AUC0-24 was (36 ± 16) ng · h / ml, range – 14-75 ng · h / ml). Systemic exposure to ivermectin reached a plateau by the end of the second week of treatment under steady state conditions. With longer treatment in phase III studies, the systemic exposure to ivermectin remained the same as after 2 weeks of treatment. Under Css conditions, the levels of systemic exposure of ivermectin (AUC0-24 (36 ± 16) ng · h / ml) were lower than after a single oral intake of 6 mg ivermectin in healthy volunteers (AUC0-24 (134 ± 66) ng · h / ml) …
Distribution. An in vitro study has shown that the binding of ivermectin to blood plasma proteins (mainly albumin) is more than 99%. No significant binding of ivermectin to erythrocytes was observed.
Metabolism. In in vitro studies using human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP450 enzymes, it has been noted that ivermectin is metabolized primarily by CYP3A4.
In vitro studies have shown that ivermectin does not inhibit the isoenzymes CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP4A11 or CYP2E1. Ivermectin does not induce the expression of isoenzymes CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9 or CYP3A4) in cultured human hepatocytes. The two main metabolites of ivermectin (3′-O-demethylivermectin and 4a-hydroxyivermectin) were identified in a clinical pharmacokinetic study using the maximum allowable dose of this agent and were studied in phase II clinical trials. Like the parent compound, the metabolites reached equilibrium by the end of the second weeks of treatment, no signs of accumulation were observed in the period up to 12 weeks In addition, the systemic exposure of metabolites (assessed using Cmax and AUC), obtained at steady state, was much lower than for ivermectin after oral administration.
Excretion. The final T1 / 2 averaged 6 days (approximately 145 hours, range 92-238 hours) in patients who applied ivermectin to the skin 1 time per day for 28 days in a clinical pharmacokinetic study using the maximum allowable dose. Excretion from the body depends on the degree of absorption after topical application. The pharmacokinetics of ivermectin have not been studied in patients with impaired liver and kidney function.
Application of the substance Ivermectin Inflammatory skin lesions in rosacea (papulopustular form) in adult patients.
Contraindications Hypersensitivity; pregnancy; period of breastfeeding; age up to 18 years (safety and efficacy for this age category has not been studied).
Restrictions on use Liver dysfunction.
Application during pregnancy and lactation Data on the use of ivermectin in pregnant women are limited. Reproductive toxicity studies when taking ivermectin orally have shown that it has teratogenic potential in rats and rabbits, however, due to the low systemic exposure when applied externally at the recommended dosage, the risk of fetotoxicity in humans is low. The use of ivermectin during pregnancy is contraindicated.
After oral administration, low concentrations of ivermectin are excreted into breast milk. When applied topically, the release of ivermectin into breast milk has not been studied. Pharmacokinetic and toxicological data from animal studies also indicate the excretion of ivermectin in breast milk. The risk to the nursing infant cannot be excluded. If necessary, the use of ivermectin should stop breastfeeding.
Side effects of the substance Ivermectin
The most common adverse reactions, such as burning sensation, skin irritation, itching and dry skin, were noted in less than 1% of patients treated with ivermectin in clinical trials.
On the part of the skin and subcutaneous tissues: often (≥1 / 10) – burning sensation of the skin; infrequently (≥1 / 1000, <1/100) – skin irritation, itching, dry skin; frequency unknown – contact dermatitis, allergic reactions.
Typically, these reactions are mild to moderate and usually diminish with continued therapy.
There were no significant differences in the safety profile among patients aged 18 to 65 years and older.
Interaction Studies on the interaction of ivermectin with other drugs have not been conducted. Concomitant use with other agents for external and systemic use for the treatment of rosacea has not been studied. Caution should be exercised when used simultaneously with strong inhibitors of CYP3A4, since the concentration of ivermectin in the blood plasma can increase significantly.
Overdose There have been no reported cases of ivermectin overdose.
Symptoms: In case of accidental or significant exposure of a person to unknown amounts of veterinary forms of ivermectin (ingestion, inhalation, parenteral administration or contact with the body surface), skin rash, facial edema, eyelid edema, headache, dizziness, asthenia, nausea, vomiting, etc. diarrhea. Other reported adverse reactions include seizures, ataxia, shortness of breath, abdominal pain, paresthesia, urticaria, and contact dermatitis.
Treatment: in case of accidental ingestion, symptomatic therapy is carried out, including parenteral administration of fluids and electrolytes, respiratory support (providing oxygen and, if necessary, mechanical ventilation) and vasopressors (in the presence of a pronounced decrease in blood pressure). To prevent the absorption of ingested ivermectin, provoking vomiting and / or urgent gastric lavage followed by the use of laxatives and other measures to eliminate intoxication may be indicated.
Route of administration Outwardly.
Precautions for the substance Ivermectin The components of the finished dosage form of ivermectin can cause local skin reactions (eg contact dermatitis), allergic reactions (including delayed-type reactions), skin irritation.
Wash your hands after use.
After drying, you can apply cosmetics.
Influence on the ability to drive vehicles and work with mechanisms. Ivermectin does not affect or slightly affects the ability to drive vehicles and operate machinery.
Metronidazole is an antibiotic that exerts a bactericidal action on gram-positive and some gram-negative bacteria in fish. Useful to help control some common bacterial diseases in fish such as Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, and Mycobacterial (Gill diseases and Chondrococcus). Effective against anaerobic bacteria, a bacteria that only grows where there is no oxygen. Also used to control parasitic diseases such as Cryptocaryon irritans, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, and Hexamita.
For fish only
Exerts a bactericidal action on gram-positive and some gram-negative bacteria in fish
Useful to help control some common bacterial diseases in fish
Easy to use tablets
Ingredients: Metronidazole Directions of Use: Add one tablet (250mg) into aquarium for each 10 gallons of water to be treated. Repeat in 24 hours. It is suggested that a partial water change be made between treatments. While duration of treatment depends on type and severity of infection, it is recommended that extended medication baths continue for a minimum of 5 days and not for more than 10 days. Discontinue treatment if no improvement is noted within 5 days. To remove harmless yellow color, change 20% of water and use charcoal filter until clear.
Most of the drugs listed below are anthelmintic (antihelminthic) drugs. These are chemical preparations that effectively destroy various parasitic helminths (“worms”). With regard to fish parasites, this group includes trematodes, nematodes and cestodes (tapeworms). These medicines are given to the fish by mouth with food, although some are also effective in the form of baths. Anthelmintics used for bath treatments have been shown to be effective against non-helminth ectoparasites such as Argulus or Argulus carp lice. If the dosage for a specific drug is not listed, you should consult your veterinarian.
Many of the anthelmintic drugs used to treat fish are also used in humans, so in some countries they can only be obtained through a veterinarian. Other such agents, for example trichlorfon, are organophosphorus compounds. These are extremely toxic chemicals, and their sale is highly regulated.
It is important to remember that the life cycle of ectoparasites is quite complex and includes many stages. Some stages are resistant to chemicals, others are more vulnerable. Since resistant stages can remain viable for a long time, re-treatment is often necessary to completely eradicate the parasites.
In addition to the chemicals listed below, there are a number of specialty aquarium medicines on the market for some of the larger ectoparasites. They should be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. It is very important to follow through with the recommended course of treatment. Allow enough time for the eggs or cysts that are resistant to chemicals to hatch into larvae.
Bendazole Fenbendazole (Panacur)
Fenbendazole is used primarily to treat worms in horses. In addition, it is useful in the fight against fish nematodes such as Camallanus. It can be purchased as an equine anthelmintic. In the aquarium hobby, this medicine is used as a powder or granule, not a dough. A three-week course of treatment is carried out by the method of long baths with a dose of 2 – 3 mg/liter, and on the 7th and 14th days, the procedure is repeated.
Fenbendazole (PANACUR) aquarium dosage
Also be aware that fenbendazole seems to soak into the porous live rock and be absorbed indefinitely. I know one hobbyist who transferred a small piece of live rock that had been treated with fenbendazole (Panacur) months earlier into a reef tank, where it killed the resident starfish and Astrea snails. So enough of the medication may be retained within treated live rock to impact sensitive animals months after the fenbendazole was administered. Don’t treat live rock intended for reef systems with fenbendazole (Panacur)!
At the lower dosage recommended for nursery tanks (1/16 tsp. Per 10 gallons), fenbendazole normally does not harm cleaner shrimp and decorative shrimp. With the exception of Astrids (Astrea), Coit and Worden have found it does not usually affect the types of snails typically used as cleanup crews (e.g., Nassarius, Ceriths, and Nerites). It will kill starfish but copepods, hermit crabs, and shrimp are normally not affected.
Macroalgae such as the feathery or long-bladed varieties of Caulerpa or Hawaiian Ogo (Gracilaria) are not harmed by exposure to fenbendazole at even triple the normal dose. In fact, if you will be using Caulerpa in your nursery tanks to provide hitching posts for the fry and serve as a form of natural filtration, it’s a very wise precaution indeed to treat them with a regimen of fenbendazole beforehand.
Fenbendazole 10% fish bendazole Liquid SUSPENSION PANACUR
So fenbendazole (FBZ) or Panacur is primarily useful for ridding bare-bottomed nursery tanks and dwarf seahorses setups of hydroids and Aiptasia anemones, ridding Caulerpa and other macroalge of hydroids or Aiptasia before its goes into the aquarium, and cleansing live rock of bristle worms, hydroids, and Aiptasia rock anemones before it is introduced to the aquarium. If you are serious about raising seahorse fry, fenbendazole is must-have med for keeping your nurseries hydroid free.
It can also be used to eradicate bristle worms, hydroids, an Aiptasia from an established aquarium if it does not house sensitive animals such as live corals and gorgonians, starfish, Astrea snails, or tubeworms and other desirable worms that may be harmed by FBZ, providing you monitor the ammonia levels closely and are prepared to deal with the ammonia spike that may result from the sudden death of the worm population.
Caution: For aquarium and ornamental fish only. not for human use. keep out of the reach of children. keep the container tightly closed and in a cool dry place. not to be given to fish intended for food use.
Most shelter workers have heard of the magic known as fenbendazole – is one of my favorite antiparasitic-and is a great drug for many reasons. It is generally considered a safe drug, toxicity occurs only in overdose 100x and exotic species. Fenbendazole is not systemically absorbed and more than 50% out of the animal feces. It should be administered for at least 3 days to kill parasites, as it has to stop cell division for some time before it becomes fatal to the parasite.
Fenbendazole is labeled for use in cows, horses, pigs and dogs; but it has also been used in cats, sheep, birds, reptiles and fish. It is marked to kill roundworms, hookworms, whipworms and tapeworms some, but is not effective against the most common tapeworms, and therefore should not be relied upon to kill the tapes. increased use of fenbendazole in shelters is to kill whipworms, Giardia, and lungworms.
Fun fact: In the treatment of whipworm (Trichuris Vulpis) You may have heard of the rule of 3, try for three days, then repeat a course of three days in three weeks and again at three months. It is an easy treatment regimen and commonly recited, but did you know there is actually a scientific reason not to try this way know? Whipworm takes 3 months to mature from an egg to an adult. If you kill adults on day 1, then three weeks later there will be some immature adults who have matured, but you still have eggs and larvae of worms present. Wait up to 3 months and then try again, and do not bother with the treatment of three weeks.
Fenbendazole (carbamate 5-phenyl-thio-2-benzimidazole) has a broad spectrum of effects and cestocidal nematocides, is active against adult forms, larvae and eggs of gastrointestinal and lung and cestode parasites in animals. The mechanism of action of fenbendazole is the destruction of microtubules in cells of intestinal worms and disruption of energy processes, leading to the death of the parasites. When administered orally, fenbendazole is easily absorbed in the intestine and is distributed in organs and tissues of the animal; excreted from the body in unaltered form and as metabolites, mainly in the bile and urine partially in animals also varnished milk.
Young cattle, sheep, goats, horses, pigs, dogs and cats are prescribed for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes in the case of: – nematodes; – cestodoses.
Enter the animals once, by force to the root of the tongue in the following doses. Young cattle monieziosis – 150 mg per 15 kg of animal body weight; with dictyocaulosis, hemonkhoze, Bunostomiasis, esophagostomosis, nematodirosis, ostertagiasis, habertiosis, cooperiosis and strongyloidiasis – 150 mg per 20 kg of animal weight. Sheep and goats with moniesiosis – 150 mg per 15 kg of animal body weight; if dictyocaulosis, hemonhose, bunostomiasis, esophagostomiasis, nematodirosis, ostertagiasis, trichostrongiloidosis, habertiosis, cooperiosis, strongyloidiasis – 150 mg per 30 kg of animal weight. Foals with parascariasis strongyles and – 150 mg per 15 kg of animal weight. Piglet with ascariasis, esophagostomiasis, strongyloidiasis, trichocephalosis, metastrongyloidosis – 150 mg per 30 kg of animal weight. Adult dogs and cats toxocariasis, Toxascaris, ankilostomiasis, Uncinaria, dipilidiosis, taeniasis – 150 mg per 1.5 kg of animal weight. Puppies and kittens (more than 3 weeks old) with toxocariasis toxascaridoz, ancylostomiasis, uncinariosis, dipilidiosis and taeniasis 1 time/day for 3 days in a row in a single dose of 150 mg per 3 kg animal weight. A special diet and use laxatives before deworming is required.
Side effects and complications in the use of fenbendazole in accordance with the indications and dosing regimen generally not observed. With increased individual sensitivity of the animal to fenbendazole and allergic reactions, drug use stops. Overdose symptoms in animals have not been identified.
Contraindications to the use of drug Fenbendazole
– Individual animal hypersensitivity to fenbendazole. Do not use the medicine: – animals exhausted and suffering from infectious diseases; – Puppies and kittens under 3 weeks of age.
Simultaneous use with bromsalanflucicides is not recommended, as in cattle with this interaction, there were cases of abortion and death in sheep. Slaughter of animals for meat is permitted no earlier than 14 days after deworming. In the case of the forced slaughter of a predetermined period, the meat can be used as food for carnivores or for the production of meat and bone. Milk of dairy animals to be used for food purposes within 3 days after worming is prohibited. The milk obtained earlier than the prescribed period may be used after heat treatment as animal feed. No smoking, drinking or eating food while working with the drug. At the end of the work, wash hands with soap and warm water.
You can buy a lot of different quality products with an active ingredient Fenbendazole at Homelabvet site.
Researchers at Monash University found Ivermectin can kills COVID-19 cells
The anti-parasite drug killed off the cells within two days and is widely available
Scientists are moving towards human trials but expect it to be at least a month
An anti-parasitic head lice drug – Ivermectin available around the world has been found to kill COVID-19 in the lab within 48 hours.
A Monash University-led study has shown a single dose of the drug Ivermectin could stop the SARS-CoV-2 virus growing in cell culture.
‘We found that even a single dose could essentially remove all viral RNA (effectively removed all genetic material of the virus) by 48 hours and that even at 24 hours there was a really significant reduction in it,’ Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute’s Dr Kylie Wagstaff said on Friday.
While it’s not known how Ivermectin works on the virus, the drug likely stops the virus dampening the host cells’ ability to clear it.
The next step is for scientists to determine the correct human dosage, to make sure the level used in vitro is safe for humans.
‘In times when we’re having a global pandemic and there isn’t an approved treatment, if we had a compound that was already available around the world then that might help people sooner, Dr Wagstaff said.
‘Realistically it’s going to be a while before a vaccine is broadly available.’
Scientists expect it could be at least a month before human trials.
Before Ivermectin can be used to combat coronavirus, funding is needed to get it to pre-clinical testing and clinical trials.
Ivermectin is an FDA-approved anti-parasitic drug also shown to be effective in vitro against viruses including HIV, dengue and influenza.
The study is the joint work of Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute (MBDI) and the Peter Doherty Institute of Infection and Immunity.
The study findings have been published in Antiviral Research.
Ivermectin is used to treat head lice, scabies, and river blindness and is widely available.
You can buy different types of quality Ivermectin of different brands at Homelabvet, you can buy the drug in powder, in tablets, in oral or injectable solution.
Freelancer journalist makes a personal little research about how and from what countries people search about COVID-19 treatment, so the popular words of searches are farmaco ivermectin, ivermectin coronavirus australia, antiviral research, antiviral research ivermectin,ivermectina covid, monash university, monash university covid, ivermectin comprar, farmaco coronavirus, ivermectina covid 19, messaggero, ivermectina comprar, ivermectin, who makes ivermectin, ivermectin kills covid, ivermectin SARS cov 2, ivermectin y coronavirus, cura coronavirus, ivermectina compresse, ivermectina nombre comercial, biomedicine discovery institute and etc…
As we can see by this research language the most searches are made from Italy and US.
For example, if you need you can buy different products with this main ingredient:
One of the most “vulnerable” in all plans of organs in the animal’s body is the eyes. Any of their pathologies is fraught with very serious problems, up to complete / partial blindness. Consider a situation when a puppy’s eyes watery: what to do in this case.
1 Main causes of lacrimation in puppies
2 Optimization of conditions of detention
3 Simple Eye Wash Products
4 Tearing of allergic origin
4.1 Change feed
4.2 Antiparasitic treatment.
The main causes of lacrimation in puppies
However, seeing the puppy’s tears, you do not need to panic right away. It is possible that this phenomenon is caused by completely natural, harmless reasons:
The indoor or outdoor air is dusty. Strictly speaking, this reason is not particularly harmless, since the ingress of dust into the conjunctival cavity is fraught with inflammation.
Severe emotional stress.
Heat and dry air.
In bulldogs and other representatives of brachycephalic breeds, eyes are watery constantly. This, in connection with the features of their anatomical development, is considered the norm…
But still more often watery eyes with a variety of diseases. In the case of puppies, this is especially important, since lacrimation is a common symptom of viral pathologies. And they are critically dangerous for kids.
Since a frequent cause of lacrimation is dryness and dustiness of the air, it is necessary to exclude the influence of these negative factors:
If possible, use a humidifier when turning on central heating.
The room must be regularly ventilated, avoiding, however, the appearance of drafts.
In the room you need to regularly do wet cleaning, avoiding extreme dust. This is especially important in the spring when the air contains a lot of pollen from trees and flowers. This will protect the health of both pets and the owners themselves. In addition, wet cleaning is especially important in urban areas, when there is a lot of dust in the street air, regardless of the season.
Simple Eye Wash
With lacrimation of the eyes, it will not hurt to rinse them. Washing will remove contaminants and allergens from the conjunctival cavity (if any). At home, you can use the funds from the assortment of a regular first-aid kit. They are inexpensive and quite effective with timely use:
Normal saline. Yes, it does not have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, but it perfectly flushes out contaminants from the conjunctival cavity. Before use, the solution is heated to 37 ° C.
If there is no saline solution at hand, the use of distilled or boiled and settled water is permissible. It also needs to be heated.
A solution of furatsilin. It is better to buy it in finished form at the pharmacy, warning the seller that it is required for washing the eyes (the concentration of furatsilin solutions for different purposes differs).
Eyes can be washed with tea leaves (leafy, not from bags). This tool can be used no more than four times a day because increasing the frequency of treatments often causes dry eyes.
A solution of chlorhexidine 0.05%. A drug in such a concentration is better to buy in a pharmacy; it is problematic to make it yourself. You can wash your eyes with a decoction of chamomile and oak (1: 1), up to three times a day. This composition has a good anti-inflammatory, bacteriostatic and healing effect.
Lacrimation of allergic origin
If the puppy’s eyes began to water suddenly and in the spring, or lacrimation appeared after the baby went outside, it makes sense to suspect an allergic reaction. Of course, it is better to consult a veterinarian right away, but if this is not possible, you can help your puppy yourself:
Pets of small breeds are given ¼ tablets of diphenhydramine; larger puppies are allowed to give up to ½ tablets.
In the same doses, Suprastin can be given. If within about one and a half hours from the moment the pill was delivered, there are no visible improvements, then lacrimation is probably not caused by allergies. Feeding a puppy with antihistamines is harmful and useless, you need to call a veterinarian.
If within about one and a half hours from the moment the pill was delivered, there are no visible improvements, then lacrimation is probably not caused by allergies. Feeding a puppy with antihistamines is harmful and useless, you need to call a veterinarian
If the puppy’s eyes began to watery during accustoming to a new feed, or during the transition to adult food, we recommend immediately changing the diet. There is no need to immediately rush for special hypoallergenic food. It is enough to first change the brand or manufacturer. If this does not help, we recommend consulting your veterinarian nutritionist and allergist.
It is very likely that chronic, sluggish allergic reactions are a consequence of the presence of parasites in the puppy’s body. They can manifest themselves not only in the form of lacrimation but also in a strange rash on the stomach and groin. Again, we warn that sudden tearfulness can be a sign of dangerous viral pathologies, and therefore the puppy should be shown to the veterinarian anyway!