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Catosal Bayer is a unique stimulant of the metabolism

Catosal bayer online shop price

Catosal Bayer

Currently, the market for veterinary drugs is well filled and it is difficult to find a drug that has no analogs. Catosal is a rare exception to this rule. It is truly one of a kind drug. Its uniqueness is Butafosfan – an active substance discovered by Bayer specialists in 1926 (!) And still has no analogs.

Catosal bayer vitamina b12 homelab price

The preparation contains two active ingredients: butaphosphamide and cyanocobalamin. Butafosfan is an organic phosphorus compound. Phosphorus compounds affect many assimilation processes in the body. Phosphorus plays a leading role in the activity of the central nervous system. The metabolism of phosphorus compounds is closely related to the metabolism, in particular fats and proteins. Phosphorus plays an important role in the processes occurring in the membranes of intracellular systems and muscles (including the heart). The role of organic compounds of phosphorus is also significant in the energy supply of vital processes. Macroergic phosphorus compounds – ATP and creatine phosphate – accumulate energy, which can then be used for mechanical (muscle contraction), electrical (nerve impulse conduction), chemical (biosynthesis of various compounds) and electrochemical (active transport of substances through membranes) work. With a lot of positive effects on the state of systems and organs, organic phosphorus compounds do not accumulate in the body and do not have side effects characteristic of stimulants and inorganic phosphorus. Butafosfan has the following effects on the animal’s body:

  • improves the utilization of glucose in the blood, which helps to stimulate energy metabolism;
  • accelerates metabolic processes by stimulating the ADP_ATP cycle;
  • activates all functions of the liver;
  • increases the nonspecific resistance of the organism;
  • stimulates smooth muscles and increases its motor activity;
  • restores tired heart muscle;
  • stimulates the formation of bone tissue;
  • normalizes the level of cortisol in the blood;
  • stimulates protein synthesis, accelerating the growth and development of the animal, as well as the reparative properties of organs and tissues.

Vitamin B12 – CATOSAL (METABOL) Bayer

The properties and complex of effects of cyanocobalamin are well known. And yet, for a clearer understanding of specialists about the complex of Catosal effects, we highlight the following:

  • stimulation of hematopoiesis
  • participation in the formation of creatine (a source of energy for muscle tissue)
  • participation in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine, which affects the state of the nervous system
  • participation in fat metabolism and metabolism of carboxylic acids
  • normalization of the process of assimilation of food
  • biosynthesis of methionine.

Indications for use: The complex of active ingredients of the drug allows its use in various fields of veterinary medicine and makes it practically irreplaceable in many treatment regimens.

Catosal is successfully used in the following cases:

  • With metabolic disorders of different etiology
  • With a decrease in the productivity and performance of animals;
  • For the prevention and treatment of infertility and postpartum complications;
  • In the treatment of secondary anemias
  • To recover animals after stress
  • To stimulate the growth of young animals
  • To normalize liver function
  • As an auxiliary therapy for intoxication, viral and bacterial infections, damage to organs and systems.

The use of Catosal in the treatment of various diseases accelerates the recovery of the animal, improves rehabilitation after illness, and reduces the risk of relapse. Catosal also helps to quickly restore the animal in the postoperative period: to reduce the likelihood of complications after anesthesia and infections.

Dosage and application features: Catosal is applied intramuscularly, subcutaneously, and intravenously in the following doses:

Dogs: 2.5 – 5 ml (average 1.0 to 3.0 ml per 10 kg of animal weight)
Cats and fur animals: 0.5-2.5 ml (on average, 0.5 to 2 ml per 5 kg of animal weight)
Horses: 10-25 ml (average 10-15 ml per 100 kg of body weight)
The product can also be used for birds. It is possible to inject the drug or drink it with drinking water at a dosage of 0.1-0.3 ml per 100 ml of water (for ornamental birds).
The instruction on the use of the drug provides for one or two administrations of Catosal at intervals of a week, however, as a result of the active use of Catosal by veterinarians, there are many different schemes for its use. Summarizing them, we can formulate the following general recommendations regarding the frequency of application of Catosal.

  1. One or two applications with an interval of two to seven days: to prevent or neutralize the effects of stress on the body; to increase the likelihood of fertilization of an egg in females, to improve the quality of sperm in males; to increase the activity and endurance of animals before exhibitions and competitions, to improve appetite, as well as to restore performance after prolonged or increased stress, in the postoperative period.

Case history 2. Pug dog, female, 3.5 years old. The animal was observed and treated in the clinic from the age of three months. At 3 months, the dog was treated for demodicosis. The anamnesis of life also: chronic cystitis after the first mating; a small number of puppies, difficult childbirth. Before the second mating of the animal, it was necessary to ensure the prevention of cystitis, as well as to increase the likelihood of giving birth to a larger number of puppies compared to the first mating.

Was proposed the drug “Catosal” subcutaneously in a dose of 3.0 ml every other day. Treatment course: 10 injections. No recurrence of cystitis was observed after mating. The dog independently (without medical assistance) gave birth to 5 puppies. During feeding, the bitch only slightly lost her condition. All puppies were active and viable, in the condition they corresponded to standard parameters.

Case history 3. Dog breed boxer, bitch. History of a difficult childbirth, 9 puppies, all different in weight (from 350 to 600 grams). After childbirth, there was an inflammation of the uterus, a lack of milk, and was treated with antibiotics. The puppies received artificial nutrition. As a result, all puppies developed severe dysbiosis, bloating and soreness of the intestines, and, as a result, growth retardation and skin rashes were observed over the entire surface of the body.

The following treatment was proposed: Lactobifadol and Catosal – subcutaneously (from 5 days of age) at a dose of 1.0 ml to puppies, and at a dose of 5.0 ml to a female, subcutaneously daily for 10 days. A positive trend was noted after 10 days. However, since both the bitch and the puppies still looked unsatisfactory, a second course of treatment with Catosal was carried out 14 days later at a dose of 2.0 ml to the puppies, and at a dose of 5.0 ml to the bitch subcutaneously daily for 10 days. By the date of vaccination (2 months), all the puppies leveled off according to the parametric data and weight, the skin rash disappeared, after weaning the puppies, the bitch quickly regained normal condition.

The drug Catosal was used in the clinic as an adjuvant in the complex treatment of other diseases, such as demodicosis, anemia (in this case, Catosal was prescribed as a rehabilitation agent after piroplasmosis and babesiosis), streptoderma, for skin diseases (including allergic ones), kidneys, heart, liver, pancreas, intestinal dysbiosis, after operations. The described clinical data indicate the multifaceted positive effect of Catosal on the animal organism and make it possible to recommend to veterinarians and breeders a wider use of this drug.


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Bayer Crop Science

is launching its second year for the Bayer PLUS Rewards grower program – a portfolio of what Bayer officials term high-performance seed and crop protection products.

Within the Bayer PLUS portal, growers can access all their eligible purchases at once and see how they have earned rewards with increased transparency. Enrollment is evergreen, so growers will not need to enroll again into the 2021 program. In addition, the 2021 program has remained consistent with only subtle changes made to maximize the program value for growers, say Bayer officials. 

“The continuation of the Bayer PLUS Rewards program is an exciting opportunity,” said Josh VanDeWalle, Bayer PLUS lead, in a Bayer press release. “Growers have access to additional tools, products, and ways to earn more rewards. The 2021 program year will help growers tackle the toughest challenges with more choice, flexibility, and simplicity.” 

Bayer retail partners are critical to the success of this program, say Bayer officials. In 2021, company officials say Bayer will continue to improve the tools and communication to retail partners around the Bayer PLUS Rewards program, both in the retail portal and in email communications. This will help build on an important alliance to bring growers more profitable solutions, Bayer officials say.

“Bayer PLUS Rewards helps retailers provide flexible choices from our broad portfolio of high-performance products. Establishing a strong partnership between Bayer’s sales force, our retailers, and customers creates trust and drives positive business results,” said Chris Turner, Bayer U.S. country division head, in a Bayer news release. 

Also, you can buy Bayer poducts at Homelabvet online store.

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Mastitis: causes, symptoms, prevention, and treatment

cow mastitis

Mastitis: causes, symptoms, prevention, and treatment


Mastitis is the inflammation of the mammary gland and udder tissue.

It usually occurs as an immune response to bacterial invasion of the teat canal by variety of bacterial sources present on the farm (commonly through bedding or contaminated teat dips), and can also occur as a result of chemical, mechanical, or thermal injury to the cow’s udder.

Mastitis is a multifactoral disease, closely related to the production system and environment that cows are kept in. Mastitis risk factors or disease determinants can be classified into three groups: host, pathogen and environmental determinants.


Subclinical: Few symptoms of subclinical mastitis appear, although it is present in most dairy herds. 

Somatic cell counts measure milk quality and can be used as an indicator of mastitis prevalence. 

Clinical mastitis: The most obvious symptoms of clinical mastitis in the udder are swelling, heat, hardness, redness or pain. 

Milk takes on a watery appearance, flakes, clots or pus is often present. 

A reduction in milk yields, increases in body temperature, lack of appetite, and a reduction in mobility due to the pain of a swollen udder are also common signs. 


NSAID are widely used for the treatment of acute mastitis. Aspirin, flunixin meglumine, flurbiprofen, carprofen, ibuprofen, and ketoprofen have been studied as treatments for experimental coliform mastitis or endotoxin-induced mastitis. Orally administered aspirin should be used with caution in acute coliform mastitis because it may lead to severe rumen atony.


  1. Hygienic teat management: which includes good housing management, effective teat preparation and disinfection for good milk hygiene, teat health and disease control.
  2. Prompt identification and treatment of clinical mastitis cases: including the use of the most appropriate treatment for the symptoms.
  3. Dry cow management and therapy: where cows are dried off abruptly and teats are cleaned scrupulously before dry cow antibiotics are administered, including the use of teat-end sealants if appropriate.
  4. Culling chronically affected cows: cows that become impossible to cure and represent a reservoir of infection for the whole herd.
  5. Regular testing and maintenance of the milking machine: with regular, recommended teatcup liner replacement and milking machine servicing and attention paid to items which must be checked on a daily, weekly or monthly basis.
  6. Good record keeping: of all aspects of mastitis treatment, dry cow therapy, milking machine servicing, Somatic Cell Counts and Bactoscan results, and clinical mastitis cases.


It’s important to identify the pathogen causing the mastitis infection because different categories of pathogens require different mastitis management strategies. Without taking the time to determine a diagnosis, there is no way to know if a given antibiotic will work. However, once you know the pathogen, a dairy farmer can work with his or her veterinarian to develop a mastitis control program that fits your specific operation.

Consider your diagnostic options based on the needs of your dairy farm.

Overview of Testing Methods

Test Identification of mastitic milk Identification of pathogen Fast Reliability Test location Milk sample type
California Mastitis Test Farm Fresh milk
Somatic cell count Lab Fresh milk
ELISA Lab Fresh, Frozen, Preserved
Bacterial culture Lab Fresh
Multiplex PCR ✓✓ Lab Fresh, Frozen, Preserved
Test Principle
California Mastitis Test Detergent lyses white blood cells (leucocytes) in milk sample, resulting in viscosity of the fluid. This is a measure for severity of infection.
Somatic Cell Count Counting of leucocytes in a milk sample, either under a microscope or using automated cell counting systems (flow cytometry).
ELISA Detects antibodies instead of pathogen; infection may no longer be active.
Bacterial culture Milk sample is streaked on culture plates. Viable pathogens form colonies that are counted.
Multiplex PCR Amplification and detection of nucleic acid of mastitis-causing pathogens. Screening for multiple pathogens in one run. Indicates active infection. Pathogens do not need to be viable.

Submitting a clean milk sample to the laboratory is critical to a successful pathogen diagnosis. Follow these steps:

  1. Clean the udder from visible dirt
  2. Prevent kicking
  3. Wash your hands
  4. Clean the teat end with 3 clean swabs dipped in 70% alcohol disinfectant
    a. If the teat end is in poor condition,     more cleaning may be needed
  5. Open the milk tube corn and keep it clean in your palm
  6. Milk the sample keeping the tube in horizontal position
  7. Close the cork immediately
  8. Add markings like cow number, quarter and date on the tube
  9. Important: only one quarter to one tube
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Study finds machine learning could improve mastitis diagnosis in cows


A new study published in Scientific Reports

 has found that machine learning has the potential to improve veterinary surgeons’s ability to diagnose herd mastitis origins accurately and reduce mastitis levels on dairy farms.

The study, which was led by Robert Hyde MRCVS from the School of Veterinary Medicine and Science at the University of Nottingham, aims to create an automated diagnostic support tool for the diagnosis of herd-level mastitis origin, an essential first step of the AHDB mastitis control plan. 

Mastitis data from 1,000 herds’ was inputted for several three-month periods. Machine learning algorithms were used to classify herd mastitis origin and compared with expert diagnosis by a specialist vet. 

The machine learning algorithms were able to achieve a classification accuracy of 98% for environmental vs contagious mastitis, and 78% accuracy was achieved for the classification of lactation vs dry period environmental mastitis when compared with expert veterinary diagnosis. 

Robert said: “Mastitis is a huge problem for dairy farmers, both economically and in welfare terms. In our study we have shown that machine learning algorithms can accurately diagnose the origin of this condition on dairy farms. A diagnostic tool of this kind has great potential in the industry to tackle this condition and to assist veterinary clinicians in making a rapid diagnosis of mastitis origin at herd level in order to promptly implement control measures for an extremely damaging disease in terms of animal health, productivity, welfare and antimicrobial use.”

Mastitis can also be diagnosed with California Mastitis test by Bayer.

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Fenbendazole – a reliable vet assistant


Fenbendazole for cats and Dogs

Most shelter workers have heard of the magic known as fenbendazole – is one of my favorite antiparasitic-and is a great drug for many reasons. It is generally considered a safe drug, toxicity occurs only in overdose 100x and exotic species. Fenbendazole is not systemically absorbed and more than 50% out of the animal feces. It should be administered for at least 3 days to kill parasites, as it has to stop cell division for some time before it becomes fatal to the parasite. 

Fenbendazole is labeled for use in cows, horses, pigs and dogs; but it has also been used in cats, sheep, birds, reptiles and fish. It is marked to kill roundworms, hookworms, whipworms and tapeworms some, but is not effective against the most common tapeworms, and therefore should not be relied upon to kill the tapes. increased use of fenbendazole in shelters is to kill whipworms, Giardia, and lungworms.

Fun fact: In the treatment of whipworm (Trichuris Vulpis) You may have heard of the rule of 3, try for three days, then repeat a course of three days in three weeks and again at three months. It is an easy treatment regimen and commonly recited, but did you know there is actually a scientific reason not to try this way know? Whipworm takes 3 months to mature from an egg to an adult. If you kill adults on day 1, then three weeks later there will be some immature adults who have matured, but you still have eggs and larvae of worms present. Wait up to 3 months and then try again, and do not bother with the treatment of three weeks.

Fenbendazole (carbamate 5-phenyl-thio-2-benzimidazole) has a broad spectrum of effects and cestocidal nematocides, is active against adult forms, larvae and eggs of gastrointestinal and lung and cestode parasites in animals. 
The mechanism of action of fenbendazole is the destruction of microtubules in cells of intestinal worms and disruption of energy processes, leading to the death of the parasites. 
When administered orally, fenbendazole is easily absorbed in the intestine and is distributed in organs and tissues of the animal; excreted from the body in unaltered form and as metabolites, mainly in the bile and urine partially in animals also varnished milk.

Young cattle, sheep, goats, horses, pigs, dogs and cats are prescribed for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes in the case of: 
– nematodes; 
– cestodoses.

Enter the animals once, by force to the root of the tongue in the following doses. 
Young cattle monieziosis – 150 mg per 15 kg of animal body weight; with dictyocaulosis, hemonkhoze, Bunostomiasis, esophagostomosis, nematodirosis, ostertagiasis, habertiosis, cooperiosis and strongyloidiasis – 150 mg per 20 kg of animal weight. 
Sheep and goats with moniesiosis – 150 mg per 15 kg of animal body weight; if dictyocaulosis, hemonhose, bunostomiasis, esophagostomiasis, nematodirosis, ostertagiasis, trichostrongiloidosis, habertiosis, cooperiosis, strongyloidiasis – 150 mg per 30 kg of animal weight. 
Foals with parascariasis strongyles and – 150 mg per 15 kg of animal weight.
Piglet with ascariasis, esophagostomiasis, strongyloidiasis, trichocephalosis, metastrongyloidosis – 150 mg per 30 kg of animal weight. 
Adult dogs and cats toxocariasis, Toxascaris, ankilostomiasis, Uncinaria, dipilidiosis, taeniasis – 150 mg per 1.5 kg of animal weight. 
Puppies and kittens (more than 3 weeks old) with toxocariasis toxascaridoz, ancylostomiasis, uncinariosis, dipilidiosis and taeniasis 1 time/day for 3 days in a row in a single dose of 150 mg per 3 kg animal weight. 
A special diet and use laxatives before deworming is required.

Fenbendazole 222 Helmintazole
Fenbendazole 222 Helmintazole

Side effects

Side effects and complications in the use of fenbendazole in accordance with the indications and dosing regimen generally not observed. 
With increased individual sensitivity of the animal to fenbendazole and allergic reactions, drug use stops. 
Overdose symptoms in animals have not been identified.

Contraindications to the use of drug Fenbendazole

– Individual animal hypersensitivity to fenbendazole. 
Do not use the medicine: 
– animals exhausted and suffering from infectious diseases; 
– Puppies and kittens under 3 weeks of age.

Simultaneous use with bromsalanflucicides is not recommended, as in cattle with this interaction, there were cases of abortion and death in sheep. 
Slaughter of animals for meat is permitted no earlier than 14 days after deworming. In the case of the forced slaughter of a predetermined period, the meat can be used as food for carnivores or for the production of meat and bone. 
Milk of dairy animals to be used for food purposes within 3 days after worming is prohibited. The milk obtained earlier than the prescribed period may be used after heat treatment as animal feed. 
No smoking, drinking or eating food while working with the drug. At the end of the work, wash hands with soap and warm water.

You can buy a lot of different quality products with an active ingredient Fenbendazole at Homelabvet site.

The most popular products are Helmintazole 200, Helmintazole 250 Pro, Helmintazole 500, Helmintazole 222, Panacur, and many other products that you can check at the site.

Sincerely, Your Homelabvet.

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Factory farms are breeding grounds for pandemics – the Guardian

farm animals covid
Illustration: Eleanor Shakespeare/The Guardian
Illustration: Eleanor Shakespeare/The Guardian

Factory farms are breeding grounds for pandemics – the Guardian

It can feel wrong, or simply impossible, to focus on anything other than getting through this most challenging moment. It is reasonable to argue that since lessons will not reduce our immediate suffering, we should learn them once we’re through this. But the vulnerability that makes the present so painful is exactly why some discussions cannot wait. The suffering we stand to reduce or increase by the threads of action that we begin to unwind now could be magnitudes of what we’re currently experiencing.

Imagine that while your country practiced social distancing, your neighboring country responded to Covid-19 by packing citizens into gymnasiums by the tens of thousands. Imagine if, in addition, they instituted genetic and pharmaceutical interventions that helped their citizens maintain productivity under such adverse conditions, even though this had the unfortunate side effect of devastating their immune systems. And to complete this dystopian vision, imagine if your neighbors simultaneously reduced their number of doctors tenfold. Such actions would radically increase death rates not only within their country but yours. Pathogens do not respect national boundaries. They are not Spanish or Chinese.

Pathogens do not respect species boundaries, either. Influenza and coronaviruses move fluidly between human and animal populations, just as they move fluidly between nations. When it comes to pandemics, there is not animal health and human health – not any more than there is Korean health and French health. Social distancing works only when everyone practices it, and “everyone” includes animals.

The meat that we eat today overwhelmingly comes from genetically uniform, immunocompromised, and regularly drugged animals lodged by the tens of thousands into buildings or stacked cages – no matter how the meat is labeled. We know this, and most of us would strongly prefer it be otherwise. But we would prefer a lot of things in the world that isn’t so and, for most of us, the future of animal farming is low on our list of priorities, especially now. It is understandable to be most concerned with oneself. The problem is, we aren’t doing a good job of being selfish.

We don’t yet know the full history of the emergence of Covid-19, the particular strain of coronavirus that now threatens us. But with recent pandemic virus threats from influenza viruses such as H1N1 (swine flu) or H5N1 (bird flu) there is no ambiguity: those viruses evolved on chicken and pig factory farms. Genetic analyses have shown that crucial components of H1N1 emerged from a virus circulating in North American pigs. But it is commercial poultry operations that appear to be the Silicon Valley of viral development.

It is on chicken factory farms that we have most frequently found viruses that have mutated from a form found only in animals into a form that harms humans (what scientists call “antigenic shift”). It is these “novel” viruses that our immune systems are unfamiliar with and that can prove most deadly.

Of 16 strains of novel influenza viruses currently identified by the CDC as “of special concern,” including H5N1, 11 come from viruses of the H5 or H7 type. In 2018 a group of scientists analyzed the 39 antigenic shifts, also called “conversion events,” that we know played a key role in the emergence of these, particularly dangerous strains. Their results prove that “all but two of these events were reported in commercial poultry production systems”.

Imagine if our military leaders told us that almost every terrorist in recent memory had spent time in the same training camp, but no politician would call for an investigation of the training camp. Imagine if we knew that those terrorists were developing weapons more destructive than any that has been used, or tested, in human history. This is our situation when it comes to pandemics and farming.

The United States CDC is the abbreviation for an agency whose name is actually the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We drop prevention from the acronym, which is innocent enough. But we also tend to drop serious discussion of prevention in favor of tactics for responding once pandemics hit. This is understandable – especially in the midst of a pandemic – but recklessly dangerous. We are preoccupied with the production of face masks, but we appear unconcerned with the farms that are producing pandemics. The world is burning and we are reaching for more fire extinguishers while gasoline soaks through the tinder at our feet.

To reduce the risk of pandemics for ourselves, our gaze needs to turn to the health of animals. In the case of wild animal populations, such as the bats that scientists have theorized as a probable origination point for Covid-19, the best solution seems to be to limit and regulate human interaction. Much has rightly been written on this and, slowly and unevenly, policies seem to be moving in the right direction. As it became established that a number of people contracted the virus after visiting a wet market in Wuhan, where the virus likely passed through humans from bats via an intermediate host, China shut down 19,000 wildlife-farming operations and banned meat from wild animals at wet markets.

In the case of farmed animals, though, the lack of public understanding has allowed unscrupulous corporations to move policy in exactly the wrong direction. Across the globe, corporations have succeeded in creating policies that use public resources to promote industrial farming. One study suggests that the public is providing $1m per minute in global farm subsidies, overwhelmingly used to prop up and expand the current broken model. The same $1m a minute that promotes factory farming also increases pandemic risk.

In the US, the death rate for Covid-19 has been less than 2% but had this been, say, H5N1 the death rate would be far higher – the CDC reports a 60% death rate. After a spike of H5N1 deaths in 2017, the virus’s spread subsided for reasons that remain unclear. Should we be relieved? Nancy Cox, who led CDC’s influenza operations for more than two decades, has emphasized: “We don’t know how the story’s going to end.” H5N1’s failure to reach pandemic proportions simply means we have a terrorist kicking around who is just one small viral mutation away from obtaining the equivalent of a nuclear arsenal.

The implications of a 1-2% death rate are all around us: half of the world is living under stay-at-home orders, children don’t go to school, hospitals are running out of life-saving equipment, we are facing a generational financial depression, and the funeral services that have traditionally allowed us at least to mourn together are being (rightfully) banned. Can we extrapolate the implications of a 60% death rate in our imaginations? That would be a 30-fold increase over our current situation. What if the next pandemic didn’t spare children? The death rate for children infected with H5N1 approaches 50%. How does it feel if you imagine one person you love a coin toss away from a horrible death? Try imagining if half of everyone you know who had the flu last year was now dying. If you have children, how many of them had the flu last year? Force yourself to imagine these things then ask yourself: how much would it be worth sacrificing now to avoid that happening?

This leads to the most pertinent question: What can we do? The link between factory farming and increasing pandemic risk is well established scientifically, but the political will to curtail that risk has, in the past, been absent. Now is the time to build that will. It really does matter if we talk about this, share our concerns with our friends, explain these issues to our children, wonder together about how we should eat differently, call on our political leaders, and support advocacy organizations fighting factory farming. Leaders are listening. Changing the most powerful industrial complex in the world – the factory farm – could not possibly be easy, but in this moment with these stakes, it is, maybe for the first time in our lifetimes, possible.

The fact that we know our food system is partly to blame can empower us. We know how to strike at the single greatest risk factor for pandemics. We know how to make ourselves and our families safer. The very uncertainty that unsettles us also reminds us that everything can change for the better, too. Thankfully Covid-19 seems to attack our children extremely rarely, and if we respond with sufficient wisdom, this time that is so marked by death will perhaps also be remembered by them as a turning point, a time of reckoning, quiet heroism and, as the month’s pass, renewal.

By: The Guardian

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A Review of COVID-19 and its implication on animal health

 What role do animals play in the coronavirus pandemic?

As the death toll of COVID-19 keeps rising, scientists now are still uncertain about the origin of the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus. This virus is the youngest in the family of coronaviruses known to infect humans and animals alike. It is believed that the pangolins and bats [Rhinolophus] that were sold in the wet market of china are the most likely candidates. One study indicated that a coronavirus [BetaCoV/RaTG13/2013] found in bats [bed reservoir] shared 96% of its genetic material with the virus [SARS-CoV-2] responsible for the current pandemic, COVID-19. But this particular bat virus is unlikely to have infected human cells directly, suggesting that the virus jumped to humans via another animal, the pangolin. Due to mutations, the same virus developed the ability to infect humans. All coronaviruses are lethal but there are always the ones that are more harmful because of how easily they can be transmitted. When a virus jumps from animal to humans it is called a zoonotic virus. But the infection is not just limited to humans as there are reports of it spreading to other animals. 

SARS-CoV-2 Infection in pets.

Studies and risk factors:

A tiger at the Bronx Zoo, New York City has tested positive for COVID-19 after developing a dry cough. A small number of lions at the same zoo also showed signs of infection.

There are several reports from countries like Hong Kong where dogs have tested positive without manifesting any of the usual symptoms. Scientists also believe that cats are very susceptible to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Such circumstances have caused panic among pet owners as they wonder what this means for them and their pets. 

Caretakers and their vets are curious about how the virus can affect the livestock. Although, pigs, chicken and ducks are not likely to get infected according to the research papers released from china and the Republic of Korea. There are clear hints that pets can contract the infection from their SARS-CoV-2 infected owners, but the claims are more obscure due to lack of research. 

Precautions and quarantine:

The current events are shocking enough to rattle pet owners. Following the statistics, it will not be surprising to see many reports of such cases shortly. Studies have hinted that the transmission is of a reverse zoonosis type, where pets are at the risk of getting infected from positive SARS-CoV-2 owners and not the other way around. It is thus safe to conclude that both human and animal species are facing a greater risk. Therefore, during the quarantine phase, you should consider the needs of your pets and prepare accordingly. 

Exposure and care

The first symptoms that appear after a possible SARS-CoV-2 infection are dry cough and fever. If your pet develops the following symptoms or seems more lethargic than usual it is important to take the advice of your veterinarian. The period for which the virus can survive on the surface of your pet’s body depends on factors such as humidity, temperature, and nature of the surface. But the current understanding denies the possibility of transmission of the infection from pets to their owners. Comparing the larger number of cases of positive COVID-19 humans and the small number of pet infection. It is improbable that your pet will be infected or can transmit the disease to others. 

Should your pet exhibit symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, contact your veterinarian immediately for further advice. According to the data gathered from the few animal cases, it is seen that the symptoms are mild. Therefore, all COVID-19 positive animals need is rest and recovery. In case of a more severe incident, your veterinarian will consult with the animal and public health officials on the course of action. 

SARS-CoV-2 infection in farm animals.

Studies and risk factors:

The SARS-CoV-2 has shown an adequate ability to evolve and adapt in an intermediate host before reaching humans. The receptor sequence binding to SARS-CoV-2 in animals and humans is remarkably similar, suggesting that there is a weak species barrier for the virus to transmit to farm animals. The members of Coronaviridae cause respiratory and intestinal infections in animals. Introductory data shows that the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 is cleaved by the enzyme Furin during its biosynthesis. This is similar to the avian influenza viruses, which acquire a polybasic structure if introduces in poultry farms and yet again cause a deadly outbreak of a highly pathogenic virus. 

ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME-2 commonly known as ACE-2 is a single-pass type 1, an integral membrane protein that covers the entirety of a cellular membrane [transmembrane protein]. It has a key expression in vascular endothelial cells, renal cells and Leydig cells of the testis. Analysis via Polymerase chain reaction [PCR] revealed it is also expressed in cells of the lung and gastrointestinal tract. Angiotensin II is the major substrate of ACE-2, meaning it negatively regulates the Renin-Angiotensin System.

ACE-2 and SARS-CoV-2 

Evidence reveals that the SARS-CoV-2 virus also uses ACE-2 as a receptor for entering the cells. There are similarities between the mechanism of viral entry into different cells between humans and animals. This creates a better foundation to the factorize a higher probability of the same virus infecting humans due to contact residues that have been found between Spike protein and ACE-2. 

The ACE-2 in humans is glycosylated at following binding sites – N53, N90, N322N53 did not give similarities in any animal species. N90 was not the site for glycosylation in ACE-2 in the following animals – mouse, pig, racoon, civet, fox, and chicken. N322 was not the site in mouse, rat, cattle, sheep, and pangolin.

But the big risk arises after it was found that some species have additional glycosylation sites in the same region. In chicken residue, L79 is a potential site with M82 being the sites in pangolin and rat. Drawing from the results, the most interesting is the ACE-2 proteins in farm animals and pet cats, as they are the next plausible reservoirs of SARS-CoV-2. Until now, there are chances of minimal exchange and therefore does not pose an intermediate threat of infection.

It should be reflected that for generations cattle producers have been dealing with infections in farm animals from different strains of coronaviruses. Animals caretakers and veterinarians have come across coronavirus infections in swine – porcine epidemic diarrhoea [PED] virus and Transmissible Gastroenteritis [TGE] virus and in companion animals – Feline INFECTIOUS peritonitis [FIP] virus. As discussed above, the difference in protein structure and varying sites, show that there is a lack of consistency in the types of vaccines used in animals, which means the evidence of its usefulness in humans is even more variable. 

Precautions and quarantine:

Practising precautionary measures during the pandemic will guarantee that there is a secure, safe, and stable food supply. Preparing well in advance for plausible viral interactions in livestock should include maintaining a proper source for feeding and medications. In case, any abnormal behaviour is detected, or if any unit of the livestock shows the usual symptoms of COVID-19 disease, it is best to inform your veterinarian as a better effort towards disaster management. 

Drugs and SARS-CoV-2 VIRUS

The present fight against the pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has been solely dependent on prevention and containment. But there is hope as more and more existing drugs are showing positive results towards inhibition of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. One such drug that surfaced quite recently is Ivermectin. It is an FDA- approved drug used for parasitic infections. It was originally known to be an inhibitor of the interaction between the HIV-1[Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1] protein and the importer protein [IMP ɑ? 1]. Its inclusion on the WHO model list of essential medicines makes Ivermectin widely available across the globe. 

Ivermectin is responsible for opening the glutamate sensitive chloride channel currents in helminths, which is believed to be the reason why it shows such anti-parasitic activity. It is the drug of choice for the treatment of Onchocerciasis and Strongyloidiasis, both of which are parasitic infections. It is also effective against several intestinal nematodes including Ascariasis, Trichuriasis, Cutaneous Larva Migrans, Wucheria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Masonella ozzardi and Loa loa. It is also used for the treatment of scabies and head lice. 

The reason why ivermectin might be effective against the SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Once the SARs-CoV-2 virus enters the cells of a body using the H2 receptor, it releases its messenger RNA into the same cells. The infected cell then starts to translate the messenger RNA from the virus which leads to the production of viral proteins responsible for the formation of new viral cells. New viral proteins then enter the nucleus, impairing the ability of the host cell to fight the infection. Scientists believe that the viral proteins enter the nucleus of a cell through specific channels made up of Importin [Protein]. There are various forms of Importin proteins namely, Importin Type alpha [imp alpha] and Type beta [Imp Beta]. It is in this process of nuclear entry of the virus where Ivermectin has an inhibitory role. It inhibits the passage of the viral protein into the nucleus. It does so by binding to the protein channels, effectively blocking the passage of the SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins from the cytoplasm into the nucleus of the cells, in vitro. Scientist at Monash University, Melbourne, were able to demonstrate that Ivermectin killed COVID-19 virus growing in cells of primates in a culture dish. A single dose of ivermectin had a 5000-fold reduction in virus levels at 48 hours in cell cultures. Justifying that this drug has a significant impact on SARS-CoV-2, in vitro. 

The drug Ivermectin, therefore, shows ample basis for further investigation for use to cure COVID-19 patients. Other drugs that have been investigated in clinical trials against SARS-CoV-2 virus are Remdesivir, Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine

Although, Ivermectin is shown to be effective in a laboratory environment, is still cannot be used in humans who have tested positive for COVID-19. The potential operation of the drug to combat COVID-19 needs funding to conduct clinical trials to confirm the effectiveness of the drugs at levels that are safe for human dosing. 

Based on what is already known, the most common adverse reaction of ivermectin is the Mazzoti reaction. The compromise takes place only when ivermectin is used for the treatment of Onchocerciasis, a parasitic infection.

 The Mazzoti reaction was first described in 1948, it is a symptoms complex seen in patients after the treatment of Nematode infestation. This was seen to occur particularly with the medication diethylcarbamazine [DEC] and the same symptoms occurred with Ivermectin. Mazzoti reactions are known to be life-threatening, characterized by symptoms such as fever, hives, generalized swelling, swollen lymph nodes, tachycardia [fast heart rate], hypertension [low blood pressure], joint pain and abdominal pain. Whilst using Ivermectin to treat onchocerciasis particularly, there is a 25% chance of Mazzoti reactions and 2% chance of diarrhoea. Treating COVID-19 with the same drug it is unlikely that Mazzoti reaction should surface. Ivermectin should not be administered to pregnant or lactating women and to children weighing less than 15 kilograms. 


The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 is definitive of the firm relationship existing between animal and human health, conditions in the ecosystem and human habits. It is strongly agreed that many viruses have existed in their natural reservoirs for a great deal of time. The constant jumping of the same viruses from their natural hosts to human species and other animals is mainly due to factors such as modern agricultural practices and urbanizations. Therefore, it is safe to say that the most constructive method of preventing viral zoonosis and reverse zoonosis is to maintain these barriers between human society and natural reservoirs. Despite the probable animal origin, the SARS-CoV-2 virus causing COVID-19 has not yet infected many animals including companion animals and farm animals, although human cases are now quite common. But there is a need to observe and investigate all animal species that are in close contact with humans for signs of infection. The current situation is saturated with vulnerabilities if new evidence emerges in terms of the virus behaving differently than what is expected. 

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Starbucks, Subway and McDonald’s have made no animal welfare progress in eight years

piglet_on_a_factory_farm online vet pharmacy

Starbucks, Subway and McDonald’s have made no animal welfare progress in eight years

Our Animal Protection Index (API), which ranks countries on their laws protecting animals, exposes the drastic need for global change

Holding countries to account

For the API, we assessed the animal welfare policies and legislation of 50 countries and ranked them from A (the highest score) to G.  

Shockingly, no country obtained an ‘A’ grade.

Some countries such as Morocco, Iran, Algeria, and Belarus were found to still be missing the basic legal framework needed to protect animals, and others do not formally recognize animal sentience in their existing legislation.

Sweden, United Kingdom, and Austria are rated with the highest scores, which is encouraging. More countries need to follow their lead. 

We are calling on all governments to immediately improve their animal welfare standards, not only for the benefit of animals but also to reduce the risk to public health.

Coronavirus and other concerns 

Severe animal welfare concerns from intensive farming, wildlife markets, and associated trade are all proven threats of disease outbreak, such as the most recent global epidemic, coronavirus. 

The API found that China, USA, Vietnam, Egypt, Azerbaijan, and Belarus need to do more to protect animals and people from the threat of zoonotic diseases.

This global threat will continue for as long as there is no effective legislation and preventative measures to control the emerging threat to animal and people’s health. 

Beyond public health, these systems which put us all at risk are causing immense suffering and cruelty to billions of animals every year. 

We need to build a better world for animals and people, but this won’t be possible until we stop treating animals as commodities.

Does the life of an animal mean nothing at all?

Last year we launched a film to highlight the many ways that we are failing to protect animals, asking the question: does the life of an animal mean nothing at all?

This is a question we need to ask governments lacking even the most basic animal welfare policies.

Materials by: WAP

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Practice advice for flukicide resistance

Practice advice for flukicide resistance

WITH INCREASING FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS and demands on the farming industry, historical attempts to reduce parasitic burdens have seen an increasing reliance on anthelmintics. These pressures, coupled with the intensification of farming, mean that maximising returns from farm to fork has never been so imperative. 

But increasing reliance on anthelmintics has also led to the development of resistance. There is already Group 1 (BZ) resistance widespread on sheep farms, with Group 2 (LEV) and Group 3 (MLs) following. This is primarily due to over-usage of flock anthelmintic treatments, which has been very costly to the sheep industry. Flukicide resistance needs to be addressed – and comprehensive measures put in place – to prevent it following suit. Fasciola hepatica, or liver fluke, is now considered to be endemic in certain areas of the UK, especially in the wetter regions, such as Wales and northwest England.

1. However, there have been widespread reports of fluke infestation. F. hepatica is influenced by climate, with wetter summers and milder winters producing an increased risk year on year due to an increase in survival of the intermediate host, Galba truncatula (mud snail). The adult snail can produce 100,000 eggs in just three to four months.

2. The trematode can multiply up to 500 times within one adult, potentially resulting in an explosive multiplication of fluke. This has led to a rise in reported cases over the last 10 years. Other contributing factors which must not be forgotten include increased livestock movement, intensification of farming, and exponential reports of triclabendazole resistance. It is commonly known within the farming industry that triclabendazole resistance is on the rise; therefore, many experts advise restrictions on its use in cattle, in order to preserve its efficacy in sheep, where it is most needed to treat acute fluke disease.

3. In cattle, the most common manifestation of disease is chronic liver disease, which is caused by the adult stages of liver fluke. To combat this, it is advisable to involve rotation of flukicide actives in strategic anthelmintic herd health plans, prior to the correct risk period. correct quarantine anthelmintic treatments can pose a risk, especially in bought-in stock that can bring with them triclabendazole-resistant fluke. COWS (Control of Worms Sustainably) recommends avoiding triclabendazole for quarantine, but caution must be taken as other products will not kill early immature fluke, and therefore a second treatment will be required to remove residual fluke. SCOPS (Sustainable Control of Parasites in Sheep) advises that treatment with more than one product with active molecules against immature flukes (closantel, nitroxynil, triclabendazole) will reduce the risk of introducing fluke with resistance to any one product.

If you want to have a quality treatment or you need a Triclaben (active ingredient: triclabendazole and albendazole), you can buy it HERE.

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How to Feed Pigs

vietnamese pigs feeding

How to Feed Pigs

Knowing what, when, and how to feed your pigs will help them grow big and healthy. A well-balanced diet is also essential for producing high-quality meat if they’re destined for the market. Start young piglets off with a fortified dry food that meets their complex nutritional needs. As they get older, you can begin giving them a mixture of grains, fruits and vegetables, distilling mash, and even leftovers from your own table.

1.Start piglets off with a well-balanced pellet feed. Pellet feeds, such as creep feed, come in small, digestible pieces that are the perfect size for young pigs to munch on. These feeds are specially formulated to meet growing pigs’ unique nutritional needs, and typically contain a well-balanced blend of protein, carbohydrates, and essential vitamins and minerals.

  • You can find creep feed and other dietary supplements for newborn pigs at farm supply stores.
  • Each of your piglets should get about 20g of creep feed per day over one or two feedings.

2. Feed mature pigs a variety of wholesome grains. As your pigs get older and larger, you can wean them off pellet feed and switch them to natural grains, which will make up the bulk of their diet. Wheat, barley, rice, and corn (both on and off the cob) are among a few of the grains that backyard farmers commonly feed to their pigs.

  • Most whole grains are high in carbohydrates, which can cause your pigs to put on fat rather than lean, healthy muscle. For this reason, it’s a good idea to supplement regular grains with protein-rich offerings like alfalfa and soybeans.[
  • For ease of digestion, the grains you supply to your pigs should be cracked, rolled, soaked, or otherwise processed.

3.Give your pigs a selection of fresh fruits and vegetables. Like humans, pigs need to eat their fruits and veggies in order to grow. For the most part, it’s safe for them to have just about any kind of produce you yourself would eat. However, they’re especially partial to leafy vegetables like lettuce, cabbage, spinach, and sweet potato vine, as well as apples, bananas, pears, melons, and other fruits.

  • You can also feed your pigs root crops. Pigs can’t get enough of the hearty crunch of veggies like potatoes, carrots, sugar beets, and parsnips.
  • Sweet, colorful produce not only tends to be the tastiest to pigs, it also contains the highest concentrations of beneficial vitamins and minerals.
  • Fruits and veggies are more nutrient-rich than other types of foods, so it’s okay for your pigs to have as much as they can hold on top of their regular grain-based diet.

4.Keep your pigs full with distilling residue. If you brew your own beer or liquor, allow your pigs to feast on the spent mash rather than simply throwing it out. Alcohol is made by fermenting the same types of grains that pigs love to eat. Since these materials have already been softened by the distilling process, they’ll be easy for your pigs to chew and digest.

  • In some places, you can purchase spent grains from distilleries for a low price to use for feed.
  • Avoid giving mash to pregnant sows or young piglets. Even though it has a low alcohol content, it still isn’t good for them.

5. Supplement your pig’s diet with table scraps. Gather up any leftover fruits, vegetables, and grains from your kitchen and combine them in a large container. You can then divide the mixture up between your pigs in place of one of their regular feedings, or serve it up as an extra treat at the end of the day. Giving your pigs your leftovers is a good way to reduce household food waste while cutting down on feed costs.

  • Pigs will eat just about anything, but that doesn’t mean that they should. Never feed your pigs processed meat or cheese products, or overly sugary baked goods.
  • Keep in mind that what you feed your pigs affects their health and body composition. A diet full of fattening foods will therefore produce pigs with more lard and less lean meat.

Determine how much food your pigs need to grow. A good rule of thumb is to feed your pigs roughly 7 pounds of food for every 30 pounds of body weight. Piglets, for instance, may only need about 1-2.5 lbs (0.5-1 kg) of creep feed per day, while a full-sized hog might eat anywhere from 15-50 lbs (6.8-23 kg)!

  • Pregnant and lactating sows typically need an extra 0.5kg of feed per day to be able to nourish their unborn litter or produce milk for their young.
  • It’s generally better to give your pigs too much food than not enough. As mentioned, they’ll stop eating when they’re no longer hungry.
  • Do some research on the specific nutritional needs of the pigs you’re raising to get a better idea of exactly how much of what to feed them.

Invest in an automatic feeder for hassle-free feeding. Automatic feeders refill themselves continually as their contents are depleted. This can make feeding less of a chore for busy or forgetful farmers. And since pigs instinctively know when to stop eating, you won’t have to worry about overfeeding them accidentally.

  • Automatic feeders can be used to dispense grains, pellets, meal, or any type of dry feed.
  • Look for feeders with separate troughs to make sure your pigs are getting enough to eat and aren’t being forced to fight over food.

Use a trough to serve table scraps and distilling grains. Whenever you feed your pigs something that comes out of the still or stove, portion it out into individual servings in a large trough. That way, you can make sure they’re only eating a predetermined amount. Using a separate trough will also eliminate the need to dirty up or risk contaminating your main feeder.

  • Only serve as much leftover table food as your pigs can eat at one time. Anything left behind will quickly spoil and become a health risk.

Feed your pigs once or twice a day. It’s important to make sure your pig’s feeder or trough stays well-stocked when they’re young and their growth is most rapid. Once they reach their full size, a single large, balanced feeding a day should be enough to keep them healthy and satisfied.

  • If possible, provide your pigs with a fenced-in field or pasture where they can graze between feedings.
  • If it’s not possible for your pigs to graze, stick to feeding them once in the morning and once in the evening and reduce the amount given with each feeding.

Secure your feeder to prevent it from being knocked over. Anchor your feeder or trough firmly to the floor or the lower part of the fence so that it doesn’t budge. Hungry pigs can easily overturn a container that’s not strapped down, resulting in wasted feed.

  • Some farmers even resort to using sturdy makeshift feeders like converted bathtubs and sinks that are too heavy to topple!
  • Feeding pigs is expensive enough on its own, so it’s important to ensure that as little food as possible goes to waste.

Stop feeding your pigs a few hours before transporting them. Put your regularly scheduled feedings on hold on days when you’ll be busing your pigs to another location. If you load them up while their stomachs are full, there’s a good chance they’ll vomit or defecate and you’ll be left with a big mess on your hands.

  • Pigs are known to roll in their filth, which means you’ll be stuck hosing them down along with your truck if they happen to get sick.
  • In some cases, feeding pigs prior to transporting them can cause excess gas to build up inside their chest cavities, leading to complications like heart failure.

Discontinue feeding 12-18 hours before taking your pigs to the butcher. This should give anything they’ve eaten recently plenty of time to make its way out. Cleaning a pig is much harder (and less sanitary) work when there’s partially digested food remaining inside its digestive tract.

  • If you use an automatic feeder, pay close attention to your pigs’ feeding habits so you’ll have an idea of when they last ate.

If you want your pigs always being in healthy mood treat them well, give them antibiotics and other treatments…